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WOODEN CROSS-SECTION CARDS. 

FOR FANCY AND BUSINESS PURPOSES. 

(Patented Keto. 9, 1886.) 

The novelty and attractiveness of these Wooden cards cut across the grain will at once recommend 
them to every admirer of woods. 

They are manufactured from timbers of close grain and their toughness, ivory like smoothness 
and beauty are a surprise 

by any Paper, and they 



Their Printing Qualit 
are of greatest value as 



This is owing to the fact 1 
cipients of such cards are 
friends as something curi< 
advertisement. 

They are also approp 

CALLING CAF 



RECEPTION 



Being perfectly adaptt 
or plain as gift cards of al 
pretty use. 

N. B. In using water co' 

the admixture of a little turpet 

punch ; and when using with g 

the surface the card is to be gli 

For scale of sizes see oppos 




Library 



-KIDS. . 

ion at once, and the re- 
showing them to their 
displaying the imprinted 



MG AND 



>, ETC., ETC. 

e used thus embellished 
try these cards for this 



with Colors "cut" the oil by 
, use a solid or "conductor's" ! 
:iot upon the card but, upon 



, .., .r,..w..~ w. ..-JDS. 

These are perfect for displaying before an audience by means of a magic-lantern, the structure of 
our various timbers. All the principal species are designed to be represented and each one is identified 
beyond question of doubt. No one who has an instrument should be without these interesting and in- 
structive preparations. 

MICROSCOPIC PREPARATIONS OF WOODS. 

These, like the stereopticon mounts, are authentic and elegantly prepared. Each slide contains 
three sections transverse, radial, and tangential which give a most perfect opportunity for studying 
the minute structure. 

PREPARATIONS OF WOODS SHOWING PRISMATIC COLORS. 

Although wood is so common a substance, very few people have ever known of these interesting 
and beautiful phenomena. For mention of one form of the display of colors, such as seen in the Cu- 
cumber Wood, see accompanying text p. 40, Note. 

Prices furnished upon application. 




PART I. 



CASE 



THE 

AMERICAN WOODS, 

.5 1 * ) 3 ) 

EXHIBITED BY ACTUAL SPECIMENS'', 

AND WITH COPIOUS EXPLANATORY TEXT, 



BY 



ROMEYN B. HOUGH, B. A. 



PART I. 

REPRESENTING TWENTY-FIVE SPECIES 



BY 



TWENTY-SEVEN SETS OF SECTIONS. 



LOWVTLLE, N. Y., U. S. A.: 

PUBLISHED AND SECTIONS PREPARED BY THE AUTHOR. 

1888. 



SID 5 3 
H55 

>/. I 



BIOLOGY LIBRARV 



Copyrighted eighteen hundred and eighty 7 -eight. 
BY ROMEYN B. HOUGH. 



WEED, PARSONS & CO., 

ELECTROTYPERS AND PRINTERS, 
ALBANY, N. Y. 



TO 

THEE IMHEMOK/ST OF 

MY FATHER, 
FRANKLIN B. HOUQH, 

J1S AN EXPRESSION DF GRATITUDE FDR THE CARE TAKEN TD INCLINE 
MY FIRST THOUGHTS TD A CONTEMPLATION OF THE WORKS DF 
NATURE, FOR GUIDANCE AND CONSTANT INSPIRATION 
IN AFTER YEARS, AND BUT FOR WHOSE SUGGES- 
TION THIS WORK WOULD NEVER HAVE AP- 
PEARED, IT IS MOST AFFECTION- 
ATELY DEDICATED, 



7431 22 



PREFACE, 



The necessity of more generally diffused information concerning the 
variety and importance of our forest trees is justification enough for the 
appearance of this work, especially at this day, when the demands of 
Forestry in this country are constantly more and more keenly felt. The 
work was undertaken at the suggestion of my father, whose intense in- 
terest in Forestry, and a kindred taste, at once gave me inspiration to the 
work. It was entered upon with the expectation of his valuable com- 
panionship and counsel during its progress, but, alas! that I was destined 
to have only at the outset, and, while I was then left ever to mourn the 
loss of a kind father, companion and teacher, the reader must fail to find 
in these pages that value and finish which his mind would have given 
them. 

Among the happiest pictures of my memory are those in which I see 
my father's delight, as I would show to him, from time to time, my suc- 
cessful progress in devising a way of making the sections for this work, 
and if only for the happiness which its appearance would have caused 
him, could he have lived until this day, I have felt duty-bound to go on 
with it, even though left to do it alone. 

The work is the outgrowth of one, of somewhat similar plan, proposed 
by my father some years since, but which he did not carry into effect. 
Its design is primarily and principally to show, in as compact and 
perfect a manner as possible, authentic specimens of our American woods, 
both native and introduced. For that end three sections, respectively 
transverse, radial and tangential to the grain (see Glossary), are made of 
each timber, sufficiently thin to allow in a measure the transmission of 
light, and securely mounted in well made frames. 

The three planes above mentioned show the grain from all sides, so to 
speak, no plane being possible but that would be either one of them 
or a combination of them. The difficulty, however, of cutting a great 
number of sections exactly on those planes is obvious, so let it be under- 
stood that the terms, "transverse," "radial" and "tangential," are, in 
many cases, only approximately exact in their application. 



vi PREFACE. 

My endeavor is to show, either in a part or all of the sections standing 
to represent a species, both the heart and sap-wood, but with some woods 
as the Sumach, for instance, where usually only the outermost ring, or a 
part of it, could be said to represent the sap-wood, the display of that is 
quite impossible. In certain other woods, as the Spruce, etc., the tran- 
sition from sap to heart-wood is almost indistinguishable by any diiference 
in color, and, although both may be shown in the sections, one can 
scarcely distinguish between them. 

The text of this work has been added rather as a secondary matter, 
to supply to those not having it in other form, such information as is of 
importance, in connection with the wood specimens, to give a fairly good 
acquaintance with the trees represented. It contains little, if any thing, 
new to the botanist, but to others it is hoped it may be of some value. 

In its preparation some use has been made of my father's Elements of 
Forestry, and thanks are due the publishers of that work Messrs. 
Robert Clarke & Co. of Cincinnati, Ohio for the use of cuts in repro- 
ducing a number of its illustrations. Other valuable books of reference 
have been the works of Drs. Gray, Wood and Bessey, LeMaout and 
Decaisne's Descriptive and Analytical Botany, Prof. C. S. Sargent's Re- 
port on the Forest Trees of North America, (constituting Vol. IX, 
Ninth Census of the United States, 1880), Micheaux and Nuttall's 
North American Sylva, George B. Emerson's Trees and Shrubs of 
Massachusetts, D. J. Browne's Trees of America, etc. 

I gratefully acknowledge the courtesies extended by Professors W. R. 
Dudley, Charles E. Bessey, and to my classmate and companion on 
many a " botanical tramp," Prof. William Trelease, as well as others whose 
names I have not space to mention, but towards whom the same grati- 
tude is felt. To Rev. J. Hermann Wibbe, Prof. Leo Lesquereux and 
Mrs. Elizabeth G. Britton, for aid in determining respectively the Ger- 
man, French and Spanish synonyms, I am heartily grateful. Last, but 
bv no means least, I have to acknowledge the very material aid received 
first from my father's counsel in planning the work, and then from 
others as near and dear, in its prosecution, proof-reading, etc. 

To those not familiar with the scientific classification of natural 
objects, a few words must be said regarding that and the application of 
descriptions. A number of species, having certain characters in com- 
mon, are gathered together into a group, called a genus (pi. genera), and 
a number of these in turn, upon the strength of common characters, 
into a higher group called an order, and still higher are various other 
groupings, ranked by authors under various names. The order, then, 
is made up of genera and the genus of species, and since it is custo- 
mary in technical descriptions to define these groups, so I have done 



PREFACE. vii 

with those species, we have to consider. In studying the descriptions 
one must commence with the order or highest group, and work down to 
the species, in order to learn all the characters of that species. 

It will be noticed that each species is labeled with technical,, English, 
German, French and Spanish names. The technical or scientific name 
is derived usually from the Greek and Latin, and is of inestimable value 
to the scientific world because of its exactness, and of its being under- 
stood in all nations. Following the technical name are the English 
synonyms in most common use, and then the German, French and 
Spanish names. But naturally in a country like this, where the English 
language almost universally prevails, our native trees have no colloquial 
names in other languages. In such cases we have simply translated either 
the technical or English name. Their value, therefore, as synonyms 
strictly speaking, must be taken with some latitude. With a few species 
colloquial names in foreign languages have been found, and in such 
cases preference has been given them. 

The authenticity of the timbers represented in this work has been a 
subject of personal attention and special care on the part of the author. 
The trees selected for specimens have been identified in the field, before 
felling, while the leaves, flowers or fruit (one or all) have been obtain- 
able, and he can, hence, vouch for the authenticity of every specimen 
represented. 

Succeeding parts, uniform in style with Part I., and representing in 
each case twenty-five additional species, are planned to appear later, with 
the ultimate end in view, of representing, as nearly as possible, all of the 
American woods, or at least the most important, in such a series of 
volumes as this one. 

Upon the reception which this meets in public favor, and upon the 
co-operation of those interested in the cause, must naturally depend the 
carrying out of that plan. It is hoped that greater experience and skill 
will enable us to obviate in future parts the faults which occur, from 
lack of those qualities, in this. 

Notice of errors in this work will be thankfully received in hopes of 
profiting therefrom in the future. 

LOWVILLE, N. Y., March 30, 1888. 



INTRODUCTION. 



1. It has been deemed imperative by way of introduction to the study 
of the trees included in this series, to give something of an account of 
the technical terms used in descriptive botany. They are words of pecu- 
liar and very exact signification, and in this, as in other branches of 
science, their use is of necessity, if we would describe an object, as a plant 
for instance, with such accuracy as to enable one to recognize it from our 
description. 

2. A clear understanding, therefore, of the technical terms so far as 
used in this work must be had at the outset. But great technicality 
we have endeavored to avoid, from the fact that those already 
familiar with the species represented will not need the descriptions, and 
for those who are not, and for whom they are introduced, they must be 
made as simple as possible. 

3. While this preparatory part then is necessary, we shall endeavor to 
keep it within as strict limits as the object in han t d will permit. Much 
that should be included, were we to study all plants, herbaceous as well 
as woody, will not here be needed and consequently will not be touched 
upon. 

4. A plant of which of course a tree is only a large example con- 
sists primarily of three organs, the root, the stem and the leaf. These 
are all that are necessary, so far as the plant itself is concerned, for the 
performance of the one great purpose of the vegetable kingdom the 
conversion of inorganic into organic matter. 

5. When special functions are to be performed, such as the repro- 
duction of the species, protection to the plant or storage of food for its 
future use, etc., no new organs are created. Those already existing are 
simply altered in their functions and so specialized as to meet the 
desired end. 

6. The Root we will not stop to consider, as it is unimportant to our 
present purpose. The stem will need but little space. The leaf and its 
morphology, to a certain extent, will require considerable. 

THE STEM. 

7. This in trees is spoken of as the trunk, and it needs our considera- 
tion here only so much as to look a little into its structure and determine 
its method of growth, for by this we may know in which of the two 
great classes of Flowering Plants it belongs. But before defining these 
classes we will have to understand something of the 

8. Structure of Wood. The elements which make up the substance 
of wood, or the parts of which it is ultimately composed, are cells, 
minute closed cavities, elongated in the direction of the grain, with 



INTRODUCTION. 




extremities tapering |;o a point and more or less thickened walls. Their 

tapering ends overlap each other, and in this way give greater strength 

and toughness to the tissue. 

H. The walls of contiguous cells are found to have pits or thin spots 

exactly opposite each other, but these do not amount to perforations, and, 

at least while the cell is in an active and growing state, there is no direct 

connection or passageway between the interior of one and that of 

another. The pits are usually plainly discernible under a microscope of 

high power. Fig. 1 represents a few wood-cells from Pine limber and the 
comparatively large pits there shown, called bordered 
pits. are characteristic of all the representatives of the 
Pine family. 

10. By a process known as oxwox/x the sap passes from 
one cell to another, and so on throughout the length of 
tin- tree. 

1 1 . Among the cells are cert a i n channels or air-passages, 
which are often so large as to be plainly visible to the 
naked eve. They are known as t/ttc/s, and are formed 
from large and blunt cells arranged end to end together, 
and in time their end partitions become more or less 
obliterated. Their walls are variously marked with promi- 
nence and depressions disposed often with great regularity. 

Tn Fig. "2 are shown the cells, ducts, etc., as seen in the I>eech wood 

highly magnified. 

P-2. It would be interesting 

to dwell longer on the micro- 
scopic structure of wood, and 

si udy its wonderful forms and 

arrangement; but we will have 

to leave that to the reader, 

who with his magnifier can see 

for himself considerable, even 

in the accompanying sect ions, 

although thinner sections are 

needed for high magnification. 
I.']. Such in brief is the 

structure of what is known as 

the ( " fibro-vascular " system, 

which makes up the substance 

of wood. Its arrangement in 

t he stem may be in eit her one 

of two ways, and upon this is 

based tin- first division in the 

classification of 

Plants. 



Flowering 




FTO. 2. 



14. The Exogenous Stem. (L. ex from or outside of and yen us 
origin) is characterized by having a central column of pith (made up 

na^nitii'd. ( From 



Fur. 1. \Voo(l-cells ,,f tin- Tine, slio\\ 
IIoiiL'li's Klements of Forestry.) 

\<jr. 'J. Section (tangential) of Heecli wood, showing, /', /"', <'*<' 
m, medullary ruvs cut across. Magnified i>ofi diameter-. |F 
Forestry, i 



mis forms of cells, and 
Houtrli's Kkments of 



THE LEAF. 3 

of subspherical cells) and this surrounded by wood a layer of fibro- 
vascular tissue which in turn is surrounded by bark. Such a stem 
increases in thickness by the growth of new tissue between the wood and 
bark, adding each year a new sheath ring as seen in cross-section to 
the outside of the wood (whence the name) and a new lining to the bark. 
All- the trees of the colder climates belong to this class. 

15. There exists in the wood of exogenous stems, besides the fiber 
described above (8-11), medullary rays, which make the silver-grain in. 
the language of wood workers. They are narrow plates radiating from 
pith to bark, and are composed of short flattened cells. They are shown 
in Fig. 2, m, as cut across and highly magnified, and in Fig. 3 as seen 
from all sides. The trans- 
verse section, Q (Fig. 3) 

shows them as seen from 
above, resembling lines radi- 
ating out from the center. 
The radial section, Sp, shows 
their width, the transverse, 
Q, their thickness and 
length, and the tangen- 
tial, Sc, as cut across. Their 
great range of variation in 
size and appearance in dif- 
ferent timbers can be beauti- 
fully studied in the wood 
sections, which are designed 
to be cut on those planes. 

16. The Endogenous Stem. (L. endo, within., and genus, origin) is 
characterized by having the wood disposed in threads or bundles (called 
fibro-vascular bundles) throughout the pithlike substance of the interior. 
It increases in thickness by the growth of new bundles within the -stem 
(whence its name), and it has no real bark. The class is represented by 
the Palms and similar trees of tropical countries, and in colder climates 
by many herbaceous plants. The Indian Corn is a familiar example in 
the North and the Palmetto in the South. 




FIG. 3. 



THE LEAF. 

17. This is a thin, expanded organ for presenting a large amount of 
surface to the action of sun-light and air, and this for the performance 
of one of the most important workings of Nature. The function referred 
to is known as assimilation, or the conversion of mineral or inorganic 
matter into living or organic matter, and upon it directly or indirectly 
depend all forms of life. Nowhere else in the whole realm of Nature is 
this work performed than in plants, and there by the agency of its leaves, 
to which the rest of the plant each part in its way is accessory. 

18. How the sap is brought up through the substance of the stem to 

Fig. 3. Structure of the Oak at two years of age, showing, m (upper side), pith consisting 
of, m', spongy portion and, m (under side), medullary sheath ; ?t, wood of two years growth, jj 
being the dividing line; c, cambium layer; r, bark and, 1-7, medullary rays, (^represents the 
transverse section, Sp the radial and Sc the tangential sections. (From Hough's Elements 
of Forestry.) 






INTRODUCTION. 



.... Blade. 



the leaf, and there comes in contact with the air which enters through 
the myriads of stomata little mouths or breathing pores which cover 
its surface, and how, so far as we can see, the function is there performed, 
are studies full of greatest interest. But it would be foreign to the 
object of this text to further follow them now, however enticing. 

19. Nor can we in this place touch upon the interesting subject of the 
differentiation of leaves for special purposes, such as for pitchers, fly- 
traps, a means of support or defense, depositories for food, etc. All such 
are found, and one can scarcely walk far in the fields in summer without 
finding examples. 

20. We must here turn our attention to the forms of leaves and such 
of their points as are important in the identification of trees. 

21. The Parts of a Leaf, if we examine one such as we would call 
typical, perfect and serving only its primary purpose that of foliage 
are three, as follows : (1) the blade or lamina, which is the flat and 
expanded portion, with its surfaces ordinarily presented upwards and 
downwards; (2) the stalk or petiole, which supports the blade on its 
summit, and (3) the stipules, which are two usually small and more or 
less leaf-like appendages at the base of the petiole, one on each side. 

22. Very commonly the stipules are absent when 
the leaf is" said to be exstiputate. They often fall 
away early, while the leaf is expanding, or they 
may persist as little blades at, but quite distinct 
from, the base of the petiole, or adnate to it making 
wing-like expansions. Occasionally their margins 
are united so as to form a sheath surrounding the 
base of the petiole as seen in the Sycamore. In 
color and substance they may be like the leaf, but 
are often of different color, or colorless, and thin 
and membraneous. 

23. Sometimes the petiole is absent, the blade 
springing immediately from the stem of the plant. Such leaves are 
called sessile, i. e., seated (from L. sedeo to sit.) 

24. The term "leaf," as ordinarily used, is applied to the blade, which 
is its most conspicuous and important part. 

25. On further examination of our leaf we will see that it is made up 
of a framework, consisting of a fibrous or woody material, and a softer 
part, a green pulp, filling in the interstices. The framework is plainly 
arranged, so as to give the leaf stiffness and support, and we speak of it 
as consisting of ribs and veins. 

26. When there is a central main branch, it is known as the midrib, 
and the branches leading off from this on each side are spoken of as the 
veins, and their branches as veinlets. This leads us to the study of 

27. Venation, the arrangement of the ribs and veins of a leaf. 
This is a subject of great importance, and, with other features which are 
quite constantly associated, it enters as an important matter in the classi- 
fication of plants. We shall see that there are primarily two grand sys- 
tems of venation. The leaves representing one system are spoken of as 

28. Netted-veined or Reticulated when there are one or several main 

Fig. 4. A Simple, Pinnately-veined Leaf, showing parts. 




Petiole. 



Stipules. 



FIG. 4. 



FORMS OF LEAVES. 



ribs, from along which branches lead off dividing and subdividing several 
times, and then finally anastomosing so as to form literally a net-work 
of veins; whence the name of this kind of venation. (Figs. 19 and 41.) 

29. When there is a single main rib running through the center of the 
leaf from base to apex, and sending off branches from each side like the 
vanes of a feather, it is said to be feather-veined OY p innately veined (from 
L. pinna, a feather.) These leaves are usually longer than broad. 
(Figs. 4 and 19.) 

30. When there are several main ribs radiating from the summit of 
the petiole through the substance of the leaf, and these in turn sending 
out their branches, the leaf is said to be from that fact radiate-veined or 
palmately (from L. palma, the hand) or digitately (from L. digitus, the 
finger) veined, from resemblance to the hand, witli fingers spread apart. 
(Fig. 5.) Leaves of this type are broader in proportion to length than 
the pinnately veined-. Contrasted with the netted- 

veined leaves are the 

31. Parallel-veined, where the veins commence at 
the base of the leaf, and run approximately parallel 
to the summit, where they again unite, and only 
minute simple cross-veinlets, if any, are given off. 
Leaves of this sort are seen in Grasses, Wheat, 
Indian Corn, Solomon's Seal, etc. A modification of 
this kind of venation is seen in the Calla, Banana, etc., 
where the veins run out transversely to the margins. 

32. The plants having parallel veined leaves com- 
prise a large and important .class, but in temperate 
climates they are nearly all herbaceous and not for 
our consideration here. 




FIG. 5. 



33. The Forms of Leaves are intimately connected with the vena- 
tion. They are very various, but as a rule quite constant within the 
same species, and consequently form an important item in the classifica- 
tion of plants. 

34. We need to consider especially the elongated types as most com- 
monly seen associated with the pinnate venation. To get the best idea 
of the forms of these leaves, we might group them as follows: (1) those 
of about uniform width; (2) those broadest near the base; (3) at about 
the center, and (4) near the apex. Taking them in this order a leaf is 
said to be 

Linear, when the sides are parallel, 
i. e., when it is of uniform width, and 
is several or many times longer than 
broad. (Fig. 6.) 

Oblong, when of uniform width, but 
only two or three times as long as 
broad. (Fig. 7.) 

Lanceolate, when broadest at the 
base, and tapering to the apex or both 
Linear. Obiong. Lanceolate, ways, and is four or five times or more 

FIG. 6. FIG. 7. FIG. 8. longer than broad. (Fig. 8.) 

Fig. 5. A Palmately-veined Leaf. 




6 



INTKODUCTION. 




Ovate. 

FIG. 9. 



Deltoid. 

FIG. 10. 



Elliptical. 

FIG. 11. 



Ovate, similar to lanceolate, but with length not more than two or 
three times the width. (Fig. 9.) 

Deltoid, triangular in shape like 
the Greek letter, Delta, from which 
it takes its name. (Fig. 10.) 

Elliptical, when broadest in the 
center, two or three times as long as 
broad, and the ends of about the same 
width. (Fig. 11.) 

Oval or Broadly Elliptical, same 
but proportionally broader, the 
length being considerably less than 
twice the width. It is between 
elliptical and orbicular or rotund, where length and breadth are about 
equal. (Fig. 12.) 

Oblanceolate, same as lanceolate, 
but reversed so as to be broadest near 
the apex, the long taper to the petiole 
and the short one to the apex. 

Spatulate, shaped like a spatula 
similar to oblanceolate, but with 
rounded instead of pointed apex. 
(Fig. 13.) 

Cuneate or cuneiform, when shaped 
like a wedge, broadest at the trun- 
cate apex and tapering uniformly to the base. (Fig. 14.) Obovate, 
similar to ovate but reversed the broadest part near the apex, and 
base narrow. 

35. The Base and the Apex of the Leaf are also important points 
to observe, and the principal forms for our present consideration may be 
seen, with the names applied to them, in the accompanying diagrams. 
(Fig. 15.) 




Orbicular. 

FIG. 12. 



Spatulate. 

FIG. 13. 





FIG. 15. 



Acute, when the sides come together at an acute angle. Acuminate 
or taper-pointed, when the taper is more prolonged tapering to a 
sharper point. 

Obtuse when blunt or rounded, the sides meeting at an obtuse angle. 

Mucronate, when an obtuse apex is tipped with a small abrupt point. 

Fig. 15. Forms of Base and Apex of Leaves. 



THE COMPOUND LEAF. 



Undulate. 



Aristate or awn-pointed, like mucronate but with a longer and more 
or less bristle-shape point. 

Cuspidate, when the point is sharp and rigid. 

Truncate, when an extremity is so blunt as to seem cut squarely off. 
Retuse, when slightly notched. Emarginate, when more decidedly 
notched. Cordate or heart-shaped, when deeply emarginate at the base. 
Obcordate, when deeply emarginate at the apex. 

36. While the bases of opposite sides of a leaf usually develop about 
uniformly it is not always the case, and such leaves are spoken of as 
oblique or inequilateral at base. They are quite characteristic of the 
Elms, and Fig. 15 shows some of these 

leaves, but there the obliquity is not so 
marked as is often the case. 

37. The Margin of the Leaf, as 

shown in Fig. 16 is 

Entire, when of even continuous out- 
line without projections or indentations. 

Serrate, when furnished with small and 
sharp teeth, pointing towards the apex, 
like the teeth of a saw. 

Dentate, when the teeth are small and 
point outward from the center of the leaf 
instead of forward. 

Incised or jagged, when the teeth are 
long, sharp and irregular. 

Crenate, similar to dentate, but with 
broad and rounded teeth. 

Undulate, wavy or repand, when slightly 
scalloped with wavy outline. 

Sinuate, same as undulate, but with 
deeper indentations, which here and in 
the following classes are called sinuses. 

Lobed, when the sinuses are more or 
less rounded and deeper, but entering not 
more than half way to the midrib or base 
of the leaf. The term "lobed" is often 
applied in a general way, regardless of 
the depth or form of the sinuses, when 
the leaf is cut into a definite number of 
lobes, and it is said to be tivo-lobed, five- 
lobed, many-lobed, etc., as the case may be. 

Cleft, same as lobcd, but with usually 
narrow and pointed sinuses entering half 
way to the midrib or base. 

Parted, when the incisions enter nearly to the midrib or base. 

Divided, when they reach the midrib or base; and this leads us to the 
consideration of 

38. The Compound Leaf a leaf consisting of several blades, with 
a common petiole or main leaf-stalk (Figs. 17 and 18), and in this cliffer- 

Fig. 16. Forms of Margins of Leaves. 




Parted. 



Divided. 



FIG. 



8 INTUODDCTION. 

ing from the simple leaf, as already described (Fig. 4), which has but a 
single blade. The separate blades of a compound leaf are called leaflets 
and the foregoing terms, used of the form, margin, etc., of the simple 
leaf, are equally applicable to the leaflet. They may be sessile on the 
main leaf-stalk, or they may be supported on stalklets of their own 
called petiolules and these may or may not be jointed or articulated to 
the main stalk, just as that is to the branch. There are two classes of 
compound leaves, corresponding to each other as do the pinnately and 
palmately- veined simple leaves. They are as follows: 

39. Pinnately compound, when the leaflets are arranged along the 
common leaf-stalk here called the rachis like the vanes of a feather 
(whence the name), or like the veins of a pinnately-veined simple leaf. 
When the rachis terminates with a single leaflet the leaf is said to be 
oddly or unequally pinnate; when with a pair of leaflets it 
is said to be evenly, equally or abruptly pinnate. 

40. Palmately or digitdtely compound, when the leaflets 
radiate from the summit of the leaf -stalk as do the veins 
of the palmately-veined simple leaf. (-Fig. 18. Compare 
with Fig. 5.) 

41. Sometimes the divisions of a compound leaf instead 
of being simple leaflets are themselves compounded, when 
the leaf is said to be twice compound, in which case one of 
the main divisions is called a pinna (pi. pinnae) and its 
subdivisions are called leaflets; when these are compounded 
they are called pinnules and their subdivision leaflets, and 
the whole leaf is said to be thrice compound pinnately 
or palmately as the case may be. The subdividing may 

FIG. 17. go on still further, and on the same plant it may be varia- 
ble. For such leaves the term decompound is used. 

42. By the use of the prefixes hi, tri, etc. (from L. bis, twice, ter, 
thrice, etc.), and the adjective foliate (L. folium, leaf), the number of 
leaflets of a compound leaf may be designated, and the leaf is said to be 
pinnately or palmately bifoliate, trifoliate (or ternate), etc., as there are 
two, three, etc., leaflets. Using the same prefix to designate the num- 
ber of times compounded a leaf is said to be bipinnate or tripinnate 
when twice or thrice pinnately compound, etc. 

43. The Arrangement of Leaves on the 
Stem (technically known as pliyllotaxy) is not by 
chance, as the casual observer might suppose. The 
place for the appearance of each leaf is determined 
beforehand, and by certain laws very exact and beau- 
tiful in their workings. We cannot,however,consider 
them to any extent here. It must suffice in this 
place to note the fact that but one leaf springs 

from the same point on the stem, and there are p IG 

primarily two systems of arrangement, as follows: 

Alternate, when the leaves spring one from a joint or node, as it is 
called and alternately from opposite sides of the shoot. (Fig. 19.) 

Fig. 17. A Pinnately compound Leaf. 
Fig. 18. A Palmately compound Leaf. 





INFLORESCENCE. 




FIG. 19. 



Opposite, when the leaves spring two from a joint, and on directly 

opposite sides; arranged along the stem in a manner similar to the 

arrangement of the leaflets along the rachis of the compound leaf shown 

in Fig. 17. A form of this type is the whorled arrangement, where there 

are more than two leaves 

from a single joint. They 

are then disposed at equal 

distances from each other 

in a whorl or circle around 

the stem. 

44. In the Pine, the 

Larch, etc., we find leaves 

which are needle-shaped. 

They are arranged in fas- 
cicles or bundles, and, at 

first thought, seem to violate 

the law that only one leaf 

springs from the same point, 

but that is not the case. 

They are really arranged 

according to the established 

laws, but along very short and undeveloped branchlets, and so crowded 

together as to appear in clusters. (Fig. 20 .) 

45; The foliage of Pines is curious, in that there are 
two sorts of leaves: (1) the primary leaves which are 
scale-like and fall away early, and from their axils appear 
(2) the secondary leaves, much larger, more conspicuous 
and arranged in fascicles as above described. 

46. Vernation is a term denoting the arrangement of 
the leaves in the bud. It is a subject of importance in its 
place, but we will not devote space to it here. The few 
terms which may occur relating to it will be explained in 
the Glossary. 

INFLORESCENCE. 

47. This term (from L. in, upon, and floreo, to flower) 
is applied to the situation and arrangement of the flowers 
on a plant, and various as this at first may seem to be, it 
is all reducible to an easy system of classification. The 
location of every flower is determined by the same laws 
which apply to the arrangement of the leaves, and only 

in those places do they appear. They develop from buds which, in 
early stages, are indistinguishable from leaf-buds, and like them are 
either terminal or axillary. 

48. When a bud develops a single flower, the latter is spoken of as 
solitary, and the stalk supporting it is its peduncle. In case of a cluster 
of flowers supported by a common stalk, that stalk is called a peduncle, 
and each branchlet supporting a flower is called a pedicel. A flower is 

Fig. 19. Leaves of the Red Elm, showing "alternate" arrangement. (From Hough's Ele- 
ments of Forestry.) 
Fig. 20. Fascicle of Needle-shaped Leaves of the Pine. (From Hough's Elements of Forestry.) 




FIG. 20. 



10 



INTRODUCTION. 



said to be textile when it has no peduncle i. e., when it is seated close 
to the stem of the plant. 

4:1). The leaves of a flower cluster are usually very much reduced in 
form- often mere scales. They are then called bracts when on the 
petiole, and when on its branches, bractlets. In a broader sense 
bract '' refers to both forms. Sometimes the bracts are wanting alto- 
u'ether. In case a ilower appears in each axil of leaves which regularly 
develop, thev are not spoken of as forming a flower-cluster, but are said 
to be solitary and axillary. 

50. An Indeterminate Inflorescence is the one formed when the 
flowers appear from axillary buds, while the terminal bud continues 
developing leaves and prolonging indefinitely the common axis. In this 
form the blossoming commences below and progresses upward is said 
to be axcendintj the older buds developing their flowers first, and in 
case 1 their pedicels are considerably prolonged, so as to make a broad 
flat flower-cluster, the outer flowers develop before the central ones. 

From that fact the inflorescence is said to be centripetal. 

51. The principal forms of the 
Indeterminate Inflorescence are the 
following: 

52. .1 Raceme, when the flowers 
are arranged singly along a common 
axis, and furnished with pedicels of 
about equal length. (Fig. 21.) 
Sometimes the buds along the axis, 
instead of developing single flowers, 
develop little racemes of flowers, when 
the whole cluster is spoken of as a 
compound raceme. When rather 

irregularly compound, as in the Oatalpa, Oat, etc., it is spoken of as a 
panicle, and a compact pyramidal form of this, as presented by the 
flower-cluster of the Horse-chestnut or a bunch of grapes, is called a 
thyrsus. 

53. A Corymb differs from a raceme 
in having the lower pedicles longer, so as 
to raise their flowers nearly or quite to 
the level of the uppermost. (Fig. 22.) 

54. An Umbel is a cluster where the 
pedicels are all prolonged, and grow all 
from the summit of the peduncle. (Fig. 
23.) They are here called rat/x, and are 
often subtended by a whorl of bracts, 
called an involucre. In the compound 
umbel each ray supports, instead of a 
single flower, a little umbel, called an 
nmbelJet, and its whorl of bracts if there be one 

55. A Sj)ikf. differs from a raceme in that the flowers have, no pedicels 
i. e., they are sessile along the axis of inflorescence, which is here 

>f as the ravlds. (Fig- 2-1.) A. pendent, spike, as seen 

Figs, iil-ii-i. Forms of Indeterminate Inflorescence. 




Corymb. 

Fio. 22. 




THE FLOWER. 11 

in the Poplar, etc., is called a catkin or ament. A thick fleshy spike is 
called a spadix, and this is often furnished with imperfect flowers, and 
surrounded by a peculiar enveloping sheath, called a spathe; as seen in 
the Calla, Indian Turnip, etc., or the spadix may be naked as in the 
Cat-tail Flag (Typha). 

56. A Head is a form of inflorescence where the flowers are sessile 
and springing all from a very short and somewhat enlarged axis, known 
as the receptacle. The Button-ball, Button-bush, etc., afford familiar 
examples. Sometimes the head is subtended by a whorl of bracts, called 
here also an involucre, as seen in the Dandelion, etc. 

57. Determinate Inflorescence is a form where the flowers ap- 
pear from terminal buds; consequently the further growth of the axis 
in that direction there terminates. Should there be a single flower it is 
spoken of as terminal and solitary. When there is a cluster of flowers 
the order of blossoming is just the reverse of what we saw in the inde- 
terminate type. It is descending, i. e., the uppermost flowers develop 
first and the lower ones later. When they form a broad and flat flower- 
cluster, those in the center open first and the outer ones later. Hence it 
is said to be centrifugal in order of development. The cluster is spoken of as 

58. A Cyme the first flower appearing from the terminal bud, and 
then at the ends of naked or bracted shoots from the nearest axillary 
buds; then from the next lower and so on. (Fig. 25.) The simplest 
form is just the reverse of a simple raceme. (Compare Figs. 21 - ^ 
and 25.) When the branching continues further it becomes a \/ 
compound cyme. (Fig, 26. ) > ( 

59. A Fascicle is a cyme where the flowers appear in a close \ Jf 
cluster or bundle, as the origin of the name L. fasciculus, a 
little bundle indicates, and 

60. A Glomerule is a cyme where the flowers appear in a 
sort of head. These forms may be recognized by their centri- 
fugal order of blossoming. Cyme 

61. Some plants represent both the determinate and the inde- p IG< 35 
terminate systems of inflorescence, by having the flowers arranged 

in the clusters of one system and these clusters 
developing in the order of the other. But both 
systems are seldom, if ever, represented primarily 
in one cluster; i. e., plants rarely, if ever, produce 
flowers from loth terminal and axillary buds. 




THE FLOWER. 

62. The object of the flower, in vegetable econ- 
. m y is the production of seed for the perpetua- 
tion f the species. In its complete form it con- 
sists of four parts, called the organs of the flower. 
They are the calyx, corolla, stamen and pistil. 

63. Strange as it may seem at first thought, these parts, how- 
ever peculiar in form or in color, are nothing more nor less than 
altered leaves, differentiated for the special purpose of reproduction. 

Figs. 25-26. Forms of Determinate Inflorescence. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Considering them, therefore, as leaves arranged in whorls on a base or 
short thickened axis called the receptacle let us look into the 
arrangement of a simple typical flower, one in which all the parts are 
present and in the simplest form. We will commence our examination 
below and work upwards. 

64. The Calyx is the lowest or outermost whorl of the leaves of the 
flower. (Fig. 21a.) It is usually green in color, but not always, and its 
principal function seems to be the protection of the parts within, espe- 
cially while developing in the bud. Its parts may be united by their 
edges, forming a tube, or separate, in which case they are called sepals. 

65. The Corolla is the whorl next above or interior to the calyx 
(Fig. 27#), and is usually of more delicate structure, and of some other 
color than green. Its parts may be separate, when they are called 
petals, or they may be united by their edges, when the flower is spoken 
of as monopetalous, in distinction from polypetalous. Again, they may 
be very dissimilar in shape and size, when the corolla is said to be irregu- 
lar. It is usually easily recognized by its delicate structure and high 
coloring. Sometimes the corolla is wanting, when the flower is said to 
be apetalous. 

66. The functions of the corolla are probably two- fold; protection 
to a certain extent to the parts interior to it, and, it would seem prin- 
cipally, attraction by means of its bright colors for insects and hum- 
ming birds, which in the grand economy of nature are the pollen-bearers 

miniature match-makers in reality 
for all of the brightly colored or 
fragrant flowers. It would be interest- 
ing in this connection to notice how 
nicely flowers are formed with refer- 
ence to that particular end i. e., for 
insuring cross-fertilization through 
the agency of these tiny messengers 
wholly unconscious of the part they 
are playing. But that the reader 
must learn elsewhere or see for him- 
self in the field. 

67. The calyx and corolla are spoken 

of as the perianth, or, from the fact of their enveloping the essential 
organs, as the floral envelopes. They are considered as unessential organs, 
because the elements of reproduction do not occur in them, and one or both 
are often absent. In the latter case the flower is said to be naked. When 
only one is absent that is considered as the corolla, and in such cases the 
remaining calyx is very commonly highly colored and petal-like. Some- 
times when both are present they are both highly colored and very nearly 
alike. Rarely as in the marginal flowers of the Hydrangea, etc., they 
constitute all there is to the flower, i. e., the essential organs are absent, 
and such flowers are from that fact neutral. 

68. The Stamens sometimes spoken of collectively as the Androe- 
cium, constitute the whorl next above or interior to the corolla, and so 

Fig. 27. Parts of a Flower detached from the receptacle, but relative positions maintained, 
a, sepal one of the leaves of the calyx; b, petal one of the leaves of the corolla; c, 
stamen; d, pistil. (From Gray.) 




FIG. 27. 



THE STAMENS. 



13 




FIG. 28. 



differentiated are they as to lose all semblance of leaves (Fig. 26c) . A 
stamen consists of two parts: a stalk-like portion (Fig. 2$a), called 
the filament and an end or head (b), which is the anther. The anther com- 
monly consists of two cells miniature cases which open at the proper 
season, each usually by a longitudinal slit, to liberate their contents 
a very fine, golden yellow powder. 

69. This is the pollen, which is to perform a very important function, 
the fertilization of the ovule in order that it may become a seed. 
Although to the unaided eye it is a mere powder, under the microscope 
it is shown, to be a mass of symmetrical bodies, usually spherical 

but sometimes elongated, cubical, triangular etc., and often 
beautifully marked with bands, checks, spines, etc., in fantastic 
figures of endless diversity, but always constant in the same 
species. One form of pollen grain is shown in Fig. 42-16, 17. 

70. The Insertion of the Stamens is usually the same as that 
of the corolla, and they are said to be hypogenmu, when they 
are inserted beneath the ovary, as in Figs. 41-2, 6; perigynous, 
when around the ovary on the calyx-tube, the ovary itself 
being free, as in Fig. 29; epigynous, when on the top of the 
ovary, or on the calyx-tube adherent to the ovary to that point. 

An example of the last type is seen in the apple blossom. The stamens 
are called epipetalous, wlien inserted on the corolla, as in most monope- 
talous flowers. 

71. The Union of the Stamens with each other may be by means of their 
filaments or anthers, and when no union at all exists, they are said to be 

distinct. United by their filaments they 
are monadelphous (from Greek words sig- 
nifying a single brotherhood), when 
united in one set so as to form a tube or 
ring; diadelphous (two brotherhoods), 
when united into two sets, and so on; 
polyadelphous when in many sets. When 
the stamens are united by their anthers, 
they are said to be syngenesious (from 
Greek GVV, together, and ysvsaiS, birth.) 
72. The Attachment of the Anther to 
the Filament is important. The anther 

is said to be innate when it is seated, as it were, on the end of the 
filament; adnate, when the lobes are attached, throughout nearly or 
quite their whole length, to the opposite sides of the filament. The 
portion of the filament between the anther-cells is called the connective. 
A versatile anther is one balanced at about its center across the tip of 
the filament and upon which it turns. 

73. The Dehiscence of the Anther (L. dehisco, to gape or yawn) is the 
opening of the cells, for the discharge of its pollen. It is usually by a 
vertical slit in each cell extending their full length, but in some classes 
of plants it is by a chink, a terminal pore or a lid. When they open on 
the side towards the pistil they are introrse, and when away from it 
extrorse. 

Fig. 28. Stamen, a, filament and, b, anther with escaping grains of pollen. (From Gray.) 
Fig. 29. Flower of the cherry, cut through lengthwise. (From Gray.) 




FIG. 29. 



14 INTRODUCTION. 

74. The Pistil is the uppermost or innermost of the floral whorls, 
sometimes spoken of collectively as the gynoedum 9 and here, too, we see 
but very little if any resemblance to leaves. There may be one or several 
pistils, and these distinct or united. 

75. A perfect pistil consists of three parts. The ovary is its basal 
portion and within this are the ovules,* one or many, which after 
fertilization develop into seeds. The style is the part of the pistil next 
above the ovary a sort of neck connecting it with the part above, called 
the stigma. It may be long and filamentous, short and thick, or even 
wanting altogether when the stigma is said to be sessile. The stigma is 
the portion of the pistil specialized to receive the pollen, that it may 
fertilize the ovule. It forms the end of the style, but not infrequently 
extends down its side, when the style is spoken of as stigmatic down its side. 

76. Pistils are simple or compound, according as they are made up of 
one or more leaves pistil-leaves or carpel-leaves as they are called, the 
word carpel meaning a simple pistil or one of the component parts of a 
compound pistil. It is most commonly used in the latter signification. 
Often there is not the slightest resemblance in them to leaves, but an 
extended study of the different forms would show that they are without 
doubt altered leaves, and our simplest way of considering them is on that 
supposition. 

77. A Simple Pistil is formed from a single leaf folded along the mid- 
rib and the margins brought together, the upper side in, thus making a 
single celled ovary, a single style, and, as a rule, a single stigma but the 

latter may consist of two lobes or crests instead of 
being simple. The line corresponding to the mid- 
rib is called the dorsal suture, and that corre- 
sponding to the united margins the ventral suture. 

78. The ovules, one or many, are borne along 
the united margins, and these, often turned in 
quite a little, from what is known as a placenta 
(pi. placentce). A flower may have a single 
simple pistil or several, but in the latter case 
they must be distinct in order to corne within 
the definition. 

79. A Compound Pistil is formed from two 
or more carpel leaves united by their edges, and 
its compound nature is shown by the several 
cells of its ovary, and its several styles or 
stigmas one or all. From this definition we 

FIG. 30. see the degree of union is very variable. It may 

be only at the base, so that at a casual glance 

the carpels may seem to be so many simple pistils. Then, a further 
union is seen (Fig. 30) where only the styles and stigmas are distinct. 
A still further union is found in the pistil of the Basa-wood (Figs. 41- 
4, 6), where, externally, only a five-lobed stigma suggests its compound 
nature, the style being single and the ovary apparently, but this in 
section is shown to be distinctly five-celled. 

*For terms descriptive of the parts, kinds and positions of the ovule, see 101-105. 
Fig. 30. Pistil of the St Johnswort, shown to be compound by its three styles and three 
cells of the ovary. (From Gray.) 





THE PISTIL. 15 

80. The degree of the partitioning of a compound ovary into cells is also 
variable. When the united edges of the carpel leaves do not turn in far, 
and bear their ovules along the lines thus formed (placentae), on the 
walls of the common cell, the ovules are said to be borne on parietal 
placenta? (from L.- paries a wall). 

81. Passing now many intermediate grades, we find pistils (Figs. 41- 
4, 5), where the infolding extends to the center or axis of the ovary, 
making a number of distinct cells by complete partitions (called dissepi- 
ments)', or in other words, the pistil seems to be made up by the union 
along their sides of so many closed carpels. In these the ovules are of 
course borne along the inner or central sutures, and they are said to be 
on axial placenta*. 

82. Cases are found (Fig. 31), in which the partitions have entirely 
disappeared, and the ovules are then borne upon a post or column in the 
center of the ovary, and they are said 

to be on a free axial or central pla- 
centa, and the ovary is plainly one- 
celled. However, the compound 
nature of such pistils is readily seen 
by the number of styles or stigmas. 

83. The forms of pistils considered 
above are closed pistils, and they 
characterize the sub-class of Flowering 
Plants known as Angiosperms (Greek, 

ayyfiov and ffTtepjua, enclosed seed). FIG. 31. 

The only way the pollen can reach the 

enclosed ovules is by sending out very minute tubes, which penetrate 

through the stigma and down the style to them. Another form of 

pistil is 

84. The Open Pistil. In this the carpel leaf instead of folding together 
remains open, in the form of a scale, and bears two or more ovules on 
the upper (inner) surface near the base. These scales grow imbricated 
together in a close spike cone as seen in the representatives of the 
Pine family. At the time of flowering they are divergent, and the pollen 
is allowed to fall directly onto the exposed ovules. The scales then 
close together and remain so until the seeds mature, when they open and 
liberate them. 

85. This form of pistil characterizes the remaining sub-class of Flower- 
ing Plants, viz., the Gymnosperms (Greek, yvj^ros, naked, and aTtep^a, 
seed). 

86. We have now found, as shown in the foregoing pages, the two 
parts pollen and ovule for the production and bringing together of 
which all the parts of the flower fire subservient. The organs which 
produce them stamens and pistils are called the essential organs, 
because they are essential for the propagation of the species, and must 
always exist either in the same or separate flowers. It remains for us to 
consider certain 

87. Terms of More General Application to the Parts of the 
Flower. In our type flower, shown diagrammatically in Fig. 27, 

Fig. 31. Flower of the Purslane cut through lengthwise. (From Gray.) 



16 INTRODUCTION. 

we have the different sets of organs entirely separate from each other. 
From this they are said to be free. 

88. But they are often inseparably joined or consolidated to a certain 
extent with each other, when they are said to be adnate or adherent. 
In Fig. 29, the corolla and stamens are shown to be adnate to the calyx, 
up to a certain point in other words they are inserted on the calyx" 
while the pistil is free. In this the ovary is superior because it is 
superior to the insertion of the calyx or what is the same thing, the 
calyx is inferior. 

89. In Fig. 31 there is shown adhesion of the calyx (and, of course, 
of the corolla and stamens also), with the lower half of the ovary; whence 
the ovary is said to be half-superior or the calyx half-inferior. Still 
another grade of adhesion is seen in the Apple blossom, where it extends 
the whole length of the ovary, and the ovary is wholly inferior or the 
calyx superior. 

90. Perfect'is a term applied to a blossom, in which both stamens and 
pistil, i. e., both sets of essential organs, are present. When one set is 
lacking the flower is said to be imperfect, and in this connection the fol- 
lowing terms are used; staminate, sterile or male, when the flower has 
stamens and no pistil; and pistilate, fertile. QY female, when it has a pistil 
and no stamens. 

91. When the staminate and pistilate flowers grow on separate plants, 
the species is said to be dioecious (from Greek diS and oinia, dwelling 
separately); and when on the same plant, but in different flowers, monoe- 
cious (from Greek, in a single dwelling). The word diclinous (from 
Greek, to incline in two ways), is applied to the flowers of both of the 
above classes. Sometimes both perfect and imperfect flowers are found 
on the same plant when it is spoken of &$ polygamous. 

92. Complete is a term which designates that all of the four sets of 
organs calyx, corolla, stamens and pistil are present. When a set is 
lacking, the flower is said to be incomplete. 

93. Regular is a term designating that all the organs of the same kind 
are alike in size and shape; otherwise the flower is said to be irregular, 
as seen in the Pea, the Violet, etc. When the parts which constitute a 
set are separate from each other they are said to be distinct; otherwise, 
united or coherent. 

94. Symmetrical is a term which designates that there is the same 
number of parts in each set of organs: and this suggests the considera- 
tion of 

95. The Numerical Plan of the Flower. It is found upon 
counting the parts of the various sets of organs in a flower, that the 
same number is quite constant throughout, although to this rule there 
are numerous exceptions. When there are five sepals we commonly find 
five petals, five (or ten, i. e., two sets of five each) stamens and five ovary- 
cells or styles. Five is here said to be its numerical plan. In other 
flowers we would find three and then again four as the numerical plan. 

96. Aestivation is a term meaning the arrangement of the parts in 
the flower-bud ; just as vernation has reference to the arrangement of the 
leaves in the leaf -bud. Such terms relating to this subject as we have 
occasion to use will be explained in the Glossary. 



THE FRUIT. 



17 




THE FRUIT. 

97. The Fruit is the ripened ovary with its contents, and with the 
calyx-tube when this is consolidated with it as conspicuously in the Apple, 
the Pear, etc. Our definition shows that the word "fruit" in technical 
language does not exactly coincide with its meaning in com- 
mon use. For example, the Strawberry, a delicious " fruit/' in 
common language, consists principally of an enlarged fleshy 
receptacle, no fruit at all in technical language, while the true 

fruit is the numerous small ripened ovaries, each with a single 
seed, which cover its surface and could hardly be thought of as 
even edible. 

98. The ripened wall of the ovary, with the adnate part of 

the calyx, if any, is called the pericarp, and in process of FIG. 32. 

maturing it may remain thin and dry or may change greatly 

by becoming thick, pulpy and 
juicy when it is said to be 
fleshy or part may become 
fleshy and the rest hard as seen 
in the Peach, Cherry, etc. In 
these cases, where the pericarp is 
distinctly divisible into two parts, 
the outer or fleshy part is called 
the exocarp, and the inner or 
hard part the endocarp or epi- 
carp, which is the stone or pit, 
and within this the "kernel" is 
the seed proper. 

99. When the pericarp opens 
at maturity to liberate the seeds, 
it is said to be dehiscent in dis- 
tinction from those that are inde- 
hiscent, or do not thus open; 
FIG. 33. and when the dehiscence is along 

a suture or partition it is said to 

be septicidal, or, when midway between the sutures, loculicidal. Cir- 

cumcissile is a mode of dehiscence which is transversely around the 

pericarp. 

100. Fruits are free or aggregated, according as they are formed by 

the ripening of respectively, a single (either simple or compound) pistil 

or an aggregation of pistils. The varieties found are quite numerous, 

and the most important are shown in the following: 

Fig. 32. Scale from a Pine cone, showing the two winged seeds attached to its inner 
(upper) surface. (From Hough's Elements of Forestry.) 

Fig. 33. Flowers of the Hornbeam, the two lower catkins being staminate and the upper one 
pistillate. (From Hough's Elements of Forestry.) 

3 




18 INTRODUCTION. 

SYNOPSIS OF THE PRINCIPAL KINDS OF FRUITS. 

Free Fruits resulting from the ripening of a single pistil, either simple 

or compound. 
a. Dry Pericarp, 
b. Indehiscent and 

C. Thin, containing a single ovule; e. g. Buttercup ACHENIUM. 

An achenium inflated and bladder like e. g. Pigweed UTRICLE. 

An achenium with pericarp adherent to seed; e. g. Wheat CARYOPSTS. 

An achenium with wing-like projections; e. g. Ash and Elm SAMARA. 

cc. Thick, hard and furnished with an involucre or cup; e. g. Oak .NuT. 

bb. Dehiscent Pericarp, 

C. Resulting from a simple ovary. 

Dehiscent along the inner or ventral suture; e. g. Pceony FOLLICLE. 

Dehiscent along both ventral and dorsal sutures; e. g. Pea LEGUME. 

A Legume dividing transversely; e. g. Desmodium LOMENT. 

CC. Resulting from a compound ovary; e. g. Iris CAPSULE.* 

Dehiscence by two lateral valves; e. g. Mustard SILIQUE. 

A broad and short silique; e. g. Shepherd's Purse SILICLE or POUCH. 

Dehiscence circunicissile; e. g. Plantain PIXIS. 

aa. Fleshy and Indehiscent Pericarp. 

b. With hardened endocarp a stone or pit; e. g. Cherry DRUPE. 

bb. Without a hardened endocarp. 

C. Seeds distributed through the pulpy mass. 

Rind membraneous; e. g. Gooseberry. BERRY. 

Rind firm and hard; e. g. Gourd , PEPO. 

Rind leathery and easily separable; e. g. Orange HESPERIDIUM. 

CC. Seeds in distinct cells with papery wallj; e. g. Apple POME. 

add. Fibrous or Fibro-fleshy and Indehiscent Pericarp. 

b. Endocarp hardened and cell two-lobed; e. g. Butternut TRYMA. 

Multiple or Aggregate Fruits resulting from the ripening of an aggre- 
gation of pistils. 

a. Carpels open and scale-like; e. g. Pine CONE or STROBILE. 

aa. Carpels closed and variously aggregated as seen in the Magnolia, Mulberry, 
Osage-orange, etc NOT WELL CLASSIFIED. 

* "Capsule" and " Pod," in a broader sense, are often used for any free, dry, dehiscent fruit. 



THE SEED. 



19 




FIG. 34. 



THE SEED. 

101. The seed is the fertilized and developed ovule, and the following 
terms used here for convenience as descriptive of the parts, the kinds 
and the positions of the ovule are also applicable to the seed, excepting, 
perhaps, a few changes which will be mentioned later. 

102. An ovule consists of one or two coats or integu- 
ments: an outer coat, the primine, an inner coat, the 
secundine, and an interior part or contents, the nucleus. 
At a point which marks the apex of the ovule is a minute 
hole the orifice or foramen through the integuments, 
and at the opposite extremity the coats are blended 
together and with the base of the nucleus; this is called 
the chalaza. The stalklet, if there be any, supporting 
the ovule is the funiculus, and the place of its attach- 
ment with the ovule, the place where it breaks away when 
a seed, is called the hilum or scar. 

103. As an ovule develops, if its axis (an imaginary 
line passing through its center from base to apex) remains 
straight, in the direction of the original line of growth, 
it is said to be an orthotropous or straight ovule. More 

commonly, however, the ovule turns more or less over 
upon the supporting stalklet, which becomes adherent 
to its surface, and that part, extending from hilum to 
chalaza, is called the rhaphe. It is found with the next 
two kinds of ovules. When the ovule is turned about 
half over, its axis being at right angles to the original 
line of growth, it is 
called an amphitropous 
or half-inverted ovule. 
When it is turned com- 
pletely over, the axis 
being parallel to the 
original line of growth 
and in the opposite 
direction, it is said to 
be an anatropous or 
inverted ovule. 

104. In the preceding cases the axis of 
the ovule remains straight, the flexion 
taking place in the supporting stalklet; 
but there is a form of ovule where the axis 
itself becomes curved, the apex and orifice 
being thus brought over near to the base 

and chalaza. Such an one is called a campylotropous or curved ovule, 
and, as with the orthotropous ovule, has no rhaphe. 

105. The position or direction of the ovule in the cell is designated by 
the following terms: horizontal, when growing from the side of the cell 

Fig. 34. Staminate Flowers of the Oak, enlarged. (From Hough's Elements of Forestry.) 
Fig. 35. Pistillate Flowers of the Willow. (From Hough's Elements of Forestry.) 
Fig. 36. Fruit of the Maple (A pseudo-platanus) a double samara. (From Hough's Ele- 
ments of Forestry.) 




FIG. 35. 




FIG. 36. 



20 INTRODUCTION. 

out horizontally; ascending, when growing obliquely upwards; erect, 
when growing from the base of the cell directly upwards; pendulous 
when growing from near the top of the cell; and suspended, when hang- 
ing directly from the summit of the cell. 

Let us consider now more especially the Seed, as we find 
it developed from the fertilized ovule. We will find that 





_ 106. The Seed Coats are commonly two, the testa and 

FIG. 37. the tegmen. The testa is the outer coat, originally the 
primine of the ovule, and often becomes very greatly changed 

in process of development. It may be thin and papery, or thicken and 

become very hard or woody, etc., and be smooth or variously marked. It 

may send out membranous projections, to serve as wings, or hairs (Figs. 

37-39), etc. devices for rendering the 

seeds buoyant, that the wind may 

more widely scatter them, as they fail 

from the pods which open to discharge 

them. 

107. The tegmen is the inner coat, 

originally the secundine of the ovule, 

and is usually thin and delicate, often 

hardly distinguishable from the testa. FIG. 38. FIG. 40. 

108. The Kernel or Nucleus of the seed comprises 
all interior to its coats, and consists of either embryo alone 
or with an accompanying albumen as the case may be. 

1 09. The Embryo or Germ is the rudimentary plantlet, 
and consists of three parts, usually quite easily distin- 
guishable. They are the cotyledons or seed-leaves, the 
radicle, which in germination grows downward and 
forms the root, and the plumule which develops upward 
and forms the stem or trunk. The cotyledons usually 
constitute by far the greater bulk of the embryo, and 
are more or less gorged with nourishment, prepared 
food deposited there by the parent for supporting the 
young plantlet, when at the time of germination it needs 
it for assistance in taking root in order to " shift for itself/' 
According as there are one, two or several cotyledons, 

_ seeds are said to be respectively monocotyledonous, dico- 

FicT 39***' tyledonous or polycotyledonous. 

110. The cotyledons as seen in the Horsechestnut, 
Pea, etc., are very thick and seem very little like leaves. Those of 
the Squash, Maple, etc., resemble leaves somewhat, and after giving up 
their stored food in germination rise above ground and serve as leaves. 
In the seeds of many classes of plants the cotyledons contain but very 
little nourishing matter, and then 

Fig. 37. Fruit of the Birch a samara with two wings. (From Hough's Elements of 
Forestry.) 

Fig. 38. Fruit of the Elm a samara winged all around. (From Hough's Elements of 
Forestry. ) 

Fig. 39. Pistillate catkin of the Poplar, with pods mostly open, and the matured seed ready 
to escape. (From Hough's Elements of Forestry.) 

Fig. 40. Seed of the Cottonwood showing its hairy tuft. (From Hough's Elements of 
Forestry.) 





FIG. 41. 



Fig. 41. Small leaved Basswood ( Tilia parviflora). 1. A sprig with blossoms and leaves. 
2, 3. Blossoms from upper and under points of view. 4, 5. Longitudinal and transverse 
sections of the pistil. 6. Pistil, exterior view. 7. Fruit. 8. Section of the same. 9. Section 
of the seed. 10. Twig with buds. 11. Young sprout, showing expanded seed-leaves. (From 
Hough's Elements of Forestry.) 



22 INTRODUCTION. 

111. The albumen is a storage, outside of the embryo, of food for the 
young plantlet. It is principally of a starchy nature and may be beside 
of the embryo, but usually completely envelops it. It is always found in 
seeds where the space and function are not taken up by the embryo itself, 
and its relative quantity may accordingly be little or very great. In tex- 
ture it is extremely various, as it may be oily, mucilaginous, fleshy, fari- 
naceous etc. It is quite horn like in coffee, where it constitutes by far 
the greater part of the seed the kernels of commerce. In the cocoanut 
it is fibrous, hollow, and filled with "milk," while the embryo itself is 
very small. In the seed of the Ivory Palm it is quite like ivory and con- 
stitutes the " vegetable ivory " of commerce. All these forms of hard 
albumen soften at the time of germination. A seed of the Basswood, 
with quite copious albumen and entirely enveloping the embryo, is seen 
in Fig. 41-9. 

112. Seeds containing no albumen are said to be exalbuminous, in dis- 
tinction from the albuminous seeds, i. e., those containing albumen. 

113. An Aril is an adventitious growth outside of and partly or 
wholly enveloping the seeds of certain plants. The mace of the nutmeg 
is of this nature. The seed of the White Water- Lily is invested in a 
transparent aril, and those of the Climbing-Bittersweet and Burning 
Bush in scarlet arils. 

THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WOODS. 

114. These, so far as relating to the woods of North America north 
of Mexico were very carefully studied, with the exception of a few 
species, in connection with the United States census investigations of 
1880. The special agent employed for this purpose was Mr. Stephen P. 
Sharpies, of Cambridge, Mass., who conducted elaborate experiments in 
their determination, and the results, fully tabulated with explanations of 
the methods employed, were incorporated by Prof. Chas. S. Sargent in 
Vol. IX [Ninth Census of the United States, 1880]. It is from that 
report that we have taken the estimates of Specific Gravity, Percentage 
of Ash, Relative Approximate Fuel Value, Coefficient of Elasticity, Modu- 
lus of Rupture, Resistance to Longitudinal Pressure, Resistance to 
Indentation and Weight of a Cubic Foot in Pounds. These, with the 
methods employed, we will here briefly explain, quoting largely from the 
report above referred to. A given estimate represents the average of all 
the results obtained in that particular line of experimenting. 

115. The Specific Gravity. At least two determinations were made 
for each species studied, and, in case of woods of commercial importance, 
specimens were taken from many trees growing in widely different parts 
of the country and under different conditions of soil and climate. . The 
specimens used were made 100 millimeters long and about 35 millimeters 
square, and were dried at 100 centigrade until they ceased to lose in 
weight. The specific gravity was then obtained by measurement with 
micrometer calipers and calculation from the weights of the blocks. Of 
the four hundred and twenty-nine species experimented upon, the range 
of variation was found to be from 0.2616 (in Ficus aurea, the small- 
fruited Fig), to 1.3020 (in Condalia ferrea, the Black Iron-wood). 



THE PHYSICAL PIIOPERTIES OF WOODS. 23 

116. Percentage of Ash. Two determinations of ash were made 
from each specimen studied by burning small, dried blocks in a muffle 
furnace at a low temperature. Of the four hundred and two species 
studied, the range of variation was found to be from 0.08 (in Libocedrus 
decurrensj the Incense Cedar, and Pseudotsuya Douylasii, the Red Fir,) 
to 9.28 (in the Yucca elata, a kind of Spanish Bayonet). 

117. Relative Approximate Fuel Value. The relative fuel 
values were obtained by deducting the percentage of ash from the specific 
gravity and are based on the hypothesis that the real value of the com- 
bustible material in all woods is the same. It appears from Mr. Sharpies' 
experiments that resinous woods give upwards of 12 per cent more heat 
from equal weights burned than non-resinous woods. In ordinary prac- 
tice, however, less heat is derived, because so much more carbon escapes 
unconsumed in the form of smoke than with the non-resinous woods. But, 
making the distinction of resinous and non-resinous woods, the amount of 
heat derived is very nearly in direct proportion to the specific gravity, i. e., 
the heavier the wood the greater the amount of heat obtained, supposing, 
of course, the woods to be equally seasoned. There is always more or 
less heat lost in combustion, besides that resulting from the escape of 
the carbon and hydrogen of the smoke. A certain amount is required 
to evaporate the water which is always present ordinarily in the pro- 
portion of 25 per cent or more in air-dried wood. These items of loss 
were eliminated in Mr. S/s experiments so that his results show only 
approximately the amount of heat derived in ordinary practice. The 
amount of ash present in a wood lessens proportionally the amount of 
derived heat, but this item is usually very slight. 

The unit of fuel value would be represented by a wood free from ash 
(which is not found in reality) and a specific gravity of 1. Of the four 
hundred and thirty species experimented upon, there was found a varia- 
tion from 0.2480 (in Yucca baccata, the Spanish Bayonet) to 1.1938 (in 
Condalia ferrea, the Black Iron-wood). The relative fuel value of any 
particular wood multiplied by 4000 would give very nearly the amount 
of heat obtained by burning a cubic decimeter of that wood a unit of 
heat being the amount required to raise a kilogram of water one degree 
centigrade ; and 4000 units being the amount of heat produced by burn- 
ing a kilogram of dry non-resinous wood. With resinous woods the 
amount lost in the smoke 12 per cent or more must be considered. 

118. The Elasticity of Woods was experimented upon by Mr. 
Sharpies, and this he represents by designating the Coefficient of Elas- 
ticity, which is the ratio of the force required in distorting the wood to 
the amount of that distortion, which must not be beyond the elastic 
limit. By distortion is meant either extension or compression, which are 
both brought into play in the process of bending. The coefficient of 
elasticity, as determined by Mr. S., represents the weight in kilograms 
which would be sufficient to elongate a stick one centimeter square to 
double its original length, were that possible, which, of course, is not. 
the case, as the fiber would part long before that limit is reached, but it 
is a convenient method of comparison. The experiments on three hun- 
dred and ten species of our native timbers shows a range in coefficient 



24 INTRODUCTION. 

of elasticity from 25699 (in Ficus aurea, the Small-fruited Fig,) to 
165810 (in Larix occidentals, the Western Tamarack). 

119. The Modulus of Rupture, as denned by Prof. Thurston,* is 
" the quantity which represents the stress upon a unit of area of cross- 
section of the fiber farthest from the neutral axis [i. e., the line of par- 
ticles not subjected to either tensile or compressive stress] on the side 
which gives way, and at the instant of breaking under transverse stress/' 
This is expressed in the results of Mr. Sharpies' experiments in kilo- 
grams, the unit of area of cross-section being a square centimeter. In 
the three hundred and ten species experimented upon, he found the 
range to be from 148 (in Bursera gummifera, the Gumbo Limbo,) to 
1394 (in Carya myristicaeformis, the Nutmeg Hickory). 

120. Resistance to Longitudinal Pressure is represented by the 
number of kilograms required to crush the fibers of a stick one centi- 
meter square by longitudinal pressure. It is the ultimate weight which 
a stick of that size will support, and in the three hundred and seventeen 
species experimented upon, the range of variation was found to be from 
155 (in Bursera gummifera, the Gumbo Limbo,) to 887 (in Eugenia buxi- 
folia, the Spanish Stopper). 

121. Resistance to Indentation is expressed in the number of 
kilograms required to sink a punch one centimeter square to the depth 
of 1.27 millimeters perpendicularly to the fibers of the wood, i. e., into 
the side of the grain. Three hundred and fourteen species were tested., 
and in them the range of variation was found to be from 47 (in Bursera 
gummifera, the Gumbo Limbo,) to 793 (in Guaiacum sanctum, the Lig- 
numvitae). 

122. The word " compact" as applied to timbers by Prof. Sargent in the 
report above referred to, designates a non-liability to check in seasoning. 
It is mainly upon the authority of that report that the term is used in 
this work. 



* The Materials of Engineering. By Robert H. Thurston. Part I, p. 94. 




12 



FIG. 43. 



Fig. 42. fc>cotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris). 1. A twig bearing pistillate flowers in u deflected 
spike cone. 2. A twig bearing statninate flowers, in short oval catkins, clustered about the 
tip. 3. Cone further advanced and with scales closed. 4. Cone matured and with scales 
open. 5. Cone at the period of blossoming, as in 1, but enlarged. 6, 7. Bract and scale from 
same, showing outer face and side. 8. hame, showing inner face, with its two attached 
ovules. 9. A scale from matured cone, inner face, showing attached sesds. 10. Same, outer 
face, showing its thickened nature. 11, 12. Seed with its wing, natural size and enlarged. 13. 
Stammate catkin, somewhat enlarged. 14, 15. Isolated stamens from same, enlarged. 16, 17, 
Pollen grains enlarged. 18. A young shoot, showing its whorl of seed leaves. 19. Fascicle of 
two leaves. 20. Transverse section of a pair of leaves, showing cellular structure and resini- 
ferous canals. (From Hough's Elements of Forestry.) 



GLOSSARY. 

GLOSSARY 

And Index to the Structural Botany Treated in the Foregoing Pages. 



N. B. The numbers refer to paragraphs. 



Abortion, the imperfect or non-develop- 
ment of a part. 

Achenium, 100. 

Acuminate, 35. 

Acute, 35. 

Adherent, united or growing to, 35. 

Adnate, closely united or growing to 
(literally "born with"), 72, 88. 

Aestivation, 96. 

Aggregate Fruits, 100. 

Albumen (of the seed), 111. 

Albuminous, furnished with albumen, 
112. 

Alternate as applied to floral organs, when 
those of one set stand at the intervals 
between those of the next set, as applied 
to leaves, 43. 

Ament, a catkin, 55. 

Amentaceous, furnished with or resem- 
bling catkins. 

Amphitropous (ovule or seed), 103. 

Anatropous (ovule or seed), 103. 

Andrcecium, the stamens, 68. 

Angiosperm, 83. 

Anther, 68. 

Apetalous, without petals, 65. 

Aril, 113. 

Aristate, 35. 

Articulated, jointed with by a more or less 
easily separable joint. 

Ash, Percentage of in woods, 116. 

Assimilation, 17. 

Awl-shaped, sharp pointed from a broad 
base. 

Awn, a bristle as the beard of Barley, 35. 

Awned, furnished with an awn or awns. 

Axil, the upper angle between the stem 
of a leaf and the branch or stalk which 
bears it. 

Axillary, growing from the axil, 49. 

Saccate (L. bacca, a berry), berry-like 
with fleshy pulp. 

Berry, 100. 

Bifoliate, with two leaflets, 42. 

Bipinnate, twice pinnately compound, 42. 

Bract, altered, scale-like leaf of an inflor- 
escence, 49. 

Bractlet, 49. 



Caducous, falling very early earlier 
than deciduous. 

C'lli/x, 64. 

Calyx-tube, a tube formed by the union of 
the sepals, 64. 

Campylotropous (ovule or seed), 104. 

Capitate, forming a head; said of the 
stigma when enlarged like the head on 
a pin, or of a flower-cluster when form- 
ing a dense head. 

Capsule, 100. 

Carpel, 76. 

Carpellary, of or belonging to a carpel. 

Caryopsis, 100. 

Catkin, 55. 

Centimeter (cm.}, a one-hundredth part 
of a meter, ==.3937 inch. 

Ciiiate (L. cilium, an eyelash), fringed 
with small hairs like miniature eye- 
lashes. 

Circumcissile, 99. 

Claw, used of some petals, etc. , to desig- 
nate a narrow and stalk-like base. 

Cleft, 37. 

Coefficient of Elasticity in woods, 118. 

Compact, as applied to timbers, a non- 
liability to check in drying, 122. 

Complete flower, 92. 

Compound pistil, 79. 
leaves, 38. 
umbel, 54. 

Cone, 84, 100. 

Connate (L. con, with, and natus, born), 
united or developed with. 

Connective, 72. 

Cordate, heart-shaped, 35. 

Coriaceous, leather-like in texture. 

Corolla, 65. 

Corymb, 53. 

Cotyledon, 109. 

Crenate, 37. 

Cuneate, or Cuneiform, 34. 

Cuspidate, 35. 

Cyme, 58. 

Deciduous, that falls away; said of leaves 

which fall in autumn. 
Declined, turning to one side or downward. 
Decompound, more than once compound, 41. 



GLOSSARY. 



Decurrent (L. decurro, to run down), said 
of leaves when the margins of the leaf 
continue down along the stem below 
the base of midrib. 

Dehi&cent,.sa,id of anthers or pods, which 
open to discharge their contents, 99. 

Dentate, with toothed margin, 87. 

Denticulate, diminutive of dentate, *. e., 
dentate with very small teeth. 

Deltoid, 34. 

Diadelphous, 71. 

Diclinous, 91. 

Dicotyledonous, with two cotyledons, 109. 

Digitate, 30, 40. 

Dioecious, 91. 

Dissepiments, 81. 

Distinct, not united with each other, 71, 
93. 

Divaricate, diverging in opposite direc- 
tions. 

Divided, as applied to leaves, 37. 

Drupe, a fleshy fruit with a pit, as in the 
Peach and Cherry, 100. 

Drupaceous, of the nature of a drupe. 

Duct, 11. 

Elasticity of tyoods, 118. 

Elliptical (leaf), 34. 

Emarginaie, notched at the apex, 35. 

Embryo, 109. 

Endocarp, 98. 

Endogen or Endogenous, 16. 

Entire (leaf margin), 37. 

Epicarp, 98. 

Epigynous, borne upon the ovary, 70. 

Epipetalous, borne upon the petals, 70. 

Eroded, ragged as though gnawed. 

Exalbuminous, without albumen, 112. 

Exocarp, 98. 

Exogen or Exogenous, 14. 

Exserted, projecting out, as bracts of a 
cone projecting beyond the scales. 

Extrorse, said of anthers which open out- 
ward, 73. 

Exstipulate, without stipules, 22. 

Fascicle, a bundle or cluster, 44, 59. 

Fasciculate, arranged in fascicles. 

Feather-veined, 29. 

Fertile (flowers), those bearing the ovules, 
90. 

Fibro-vascular, 16. 

Filament, the stalk of the stamen, 68. 

Filamentous or Filiform, threadlike. 

Fleshy (fruits), 100. 

Floral Envelopes, 67. 

Flower, The, 62. 

Numerical Plan of the, 95. 
Organs of the, 62. 

Foliaceous, leaf -like in structure or func- 
tions. 

Follicle, a kind of pod, 100. 

Free, applied to parts of the flower, 87. 



Free, applied to fruits, 100. 

Fruit, 97, 100. 

Fuel Value of Woods, 117. 

Germ, 109. 

Gibbous, more tumid in one place than 
another. 

Glabrous, smooth, i. e., without hairs or 
roughness of any kind. 

Glaucous, sea-green and usually furnished 
with a whitish bloom, as seen on the 
cabbage leaf. 

Globose, nearly spherical in form. 

Glomarule, 60. 

Gymnosperm, 85. 

Gymncscium, the pistil or pistils col- 
lectively, 74. 

Head (of inflorescence), 56. 

Heari-wood, the inner, firmer and more 

durable wood of exogenous trunks. It 

is usually of darker color than the 

newer sap-wood. 
Hesperidium, 100. 
Hilum, the scar on a seed where the 

stalklet was attached, 102. 
Hypogenom, growing from beneath the 

ovary, 70. 

Imbricated, overlapping each other like 
shingles on a roof. 

Imperfect (flowers), 90. 

Indsed, 37. 

Inequilateral (leaves), 36. 

Inferior (ovary, etc ), 88. 

Inflorescence, and kinds of, 47-57. 

Incomplete (flowers), 92. 

Indehiscent, that does not open spon- 
taneously, 99. 

Innate, 72. 

Introrse, 73. 

Involucel, 54. 

Involucellate, furnished with an involucel. 

Involucre, 54, 56. 

Involucrate, furnished with an involucre. 

Involute, the sides rolled in in vernation. 

Irregular (flowers), 93. 

Jagged, 37. 

Kernel (of the seed\ 108. 

Key fruit, a winged fruit, a samara. 

Kilogram or Kilo, a metric measure of 
weight;=2 Ibs., 3 oz., 4.65 dr. avoirdu- 
pois. It is the weight of a cubic deci- 
meter of distilled water at its greatest 
density. 

Lacerate, torn, as it were; with deep, 

irregular incisions. 

Laciniate, cut into long, irregular teeth. 
Lanceolate, 34. 
Leaf, The, 17. 



28 



GLOSSARY. 



Leaf, Arrangement of, on the stem, 43. 

Compound, 38. 

Forms of, 38. 

Forms of Base and Apex of, 35. 

Forms of Margin of, 37. 

Parts of the, 21. 

Simple, 38. 
Leaflet, 38. 
Legume, 100. 
Limb, the lamina or blade; the border of 

a calyx -tube. 
Linear, 34. 
Lobe, 37. 
Loculicidal, 99. 
Lament, 100. 

Medullary ray, 15. 

Meter (abbreviation, w.), the metric unit 
of length,= 39.37 inches. 

Midrib, 26. 

Millimeter (abbreviation, mm.}, a thou- 
sandth part of a meter,=.03937 inch. 

Modulus of Rupture in woods, 119. 

Monadelphous, 71. 

Monocotyledonous, 109. 

Monoecious, 91. 

Monopetalous, 65. 

Mucronate, 35. 

Multiple Fruits, 100. 

Naked (Flowers), 67. 
Needle-shaped (leaves), 44. 
Netted-veined, 28. 
Neutral (flowers), 67. 
Node, 43. 
Nut, 100. 

Oblong, 34. 

Obcordate, 35. 

Oblanceolate, 34. 

Oblique (leaves), 36. 

Obovate, 34. 

Obtuse, 35. 

Opposite (leaves), 43. 

Orbicular, 34. 

Organs of the Flower, Essential, 86. 

Orthotropous, 103. 

Osmosis, 10. 

Oml, 34. 

Ovate, 34. 

Ovary, 75. 

Ovoid, egg-shaped, used of solid forms, 

not of leaves, etc. 
Ovule, 75. 

Positions in ovary, 105. 

Structure, 102. 

Palmate, 30, 40. 

Panicle, 52. 

Paniculate, arranged in panicles. 

Parallel -veined (leaves), 31. 

Parted (leaves), 37. 

Pedicel, 48. 



Peduncle, 48. 

Persistent, remaining on for a long time, 

as evergreen leaves; or sepals, which 

remain until the maturity of fruit. 
Pepo, 100. 
Perfect (flowers), 90. 
Perianth, 66. 
Pericarp, 98. 
Perigynous, 70. 
Petal, 65. 

Petiolate, furnished with a petiole. 
Petiole, 21. 
Petiolule, 38. 
Phyllotaxy, 43. 

Physical Properties of Woods, 114. 
Pinnate, 29, 39. 
Pinnatifid, pinnately cleft. 
Pistil, 74. 

Closed, 83. 
Open, 84. 

Pistillate (flowers), 90 
Pixis, 100. 
Placenta, 78. 
Plaited or plicate, folded lengthwise, used 

of certain leaves in the bud, etc. 
Plumule, 109. 
Pod, 100. 
Pollen, 69. 
Polyadelphous, 71. 
Polyandrous, having many stamens 
Polycotyledonous, 109. 
Polygamous, 91. 
Polypetalous, 65. 
Pome, 100. 
Primine, 102. 
Pubescent, furnished with a growth of 

short, soft downy hairs. 

Raceme, 52. 

Rachis, 38, 55. 

Radial (section), 15. 

Radiate-veined, 30. 

Radicle, 109. 

Receptacle, 56, 63. 

Regular (flower), 93. 

Repand, 37. 

Resistance to Longitudinal Pressure in 

Woods, 120. 

Resistance to Indentation in Woods, 121. 
Reticulated, 28. 
Retuse, 35. 

Revolute, rolled backward. 
Rotund, 34. 
Rugose, wrinkled, puckered. 

Samara, 100. 

Sap-wood, the newer, outside wood of 
exogenous trunks, usually of lighter 
color than the heart wood and not so 
durable on exposure. 

Scar (of the seed), 102. 

Scarious, thin, membranous and dry. 

Secundine, 102. 



GLOSSARY. 



29 



Seed, The, 101. 
Coats, 106. 

Sepal, 64. 

Septicidal, 99. 

Serrate, 37. 

Serrulate, serrate with very fine teeth. 

Sessile, 23, 48, 75. 

Silver-grain, 15. 

Silicli, 100. 

Silique, 100. 

/Sfowpfe leaf, 38, pistil, 77. 

Sinuate, 37. 

Sinus, 37. 

Solitary (flowers), 48, 57. 

Spadix, 55. 

Spathe, 55. 

Spatulate, 34. 

Gravity of Woods, 115. 
, 55. 
The, 7. 

Stamens, 68. 

Insertion of the, 70. 
CTntott. of the, 71. 

Staminate (flower), 90. 

afenfe (flower), 90. 

Stipulate, furnished with stipules. 

Striated, marked with small longitudinal 
grooves. 

Strobile, a cone, 100. 

Stigma, Stigmatic, 75. 

Stipule, 21. 

Style, 75. 

Sub-(& prefix), about or nearly, e. g. , sub- 
spherical = nearly spherical. 

Succulent, juicy, pulpy. 

Superior (ovary, etc.), 88. 

Symmetrical (flower), 94. 

Syngenesious, 71. 



Tangential (section), 15. 

Taper -pointed, 35. 

Tawny, a yellowish-brown or fulvous 

color. 

Ternate, 42. 
Thyrsus, 52. 
Tomentose, clothed with dense wooly 

hairs. 

Toothed (leaf-margin), 37. 
Transverse (section), 15. 
Trifoliate, 42. 
Tripinnate, 42 

Truncate, 35. 

Tryma, 100. 
Tumid, swollen or inflated. 

Umbel, 54. 

Umbellet, 54. 

Undulate, 37. 

Unsymmetrical (flower), a flower whose 

various organs do not contain the same 

number in each set. 
Utricle, 100. 

Valvate, applied to sepals, etc., which 
close together like valves, the margins 
simply in close contact, without over- 
lapping or folding in. 

Veins (of the leaf), 26. 

Venation, 27, 46. 

Vernation, the arrangement of the leaves 
in the bud, 46. 

Versatile (anther), 72. 

Villous, furnished with long soft hairs. 

Wavy (leaf -margin), 37. 

Whorl, 43. 

Wood, Structure of, 8. 



30 KEY, BASED UPON FLOWERS. 

A KEY, BASED MAINLY DPON THE FLOWERS, 

Designed as an Aid in the Identification of the Species represented in Part I. 

a. Angiospermae seeds in a closed ovary. 
b. Polypetalous petals present and distinct. 

C. Stamens numerous, more than 10, and calyx inferior wholly free from the 

pistil or pistils. 
d. Pistils numerous and cohering in a cone-like mass. (Mognoliacice.} 

. Anthers opening inward; leaves folded lengthwise in the bud (Magnolia), 
pointed at both ends, oval, thin and green above and below. 

1. M. ACUMINATA. 

ee. Anthers opening outward and leaves folded crosswise in the bud. 

2. LlRIODENDRON TULIPIFERA. 

dd. Pistil solitary but compound, as shown by styles and ovary-cells; calyx 
valvate in the bud, deciduous (Tiliacece); stamens somewhat 
polydelphous (Tilia), and with 5 petal -like scales opposite the 

petals 3. T. AMERICANA. 

CC. Stamens few, not more than 10, alternate with the petals when of the same 

number. 

d. Calyx inferior free from the ovary. 

e. Ovaries 2-5, separate; stamens distinct and inserted on the receptacle; 
trees with piunately compound and uniformly opaque leaves. 

4. AlLANTHUS GLANDULOSUS. 

ee. Ovary single, but compound as shown by the cells, styles or stigmas. 
/. One-celled and one-seeded; styles or stigmas three; shrubs or trees 
with regular flowers (Anacardiacece); leaves compound with 11- 
31 oblong lanceolate acuminate leaflets; common petiole densely 
villous and not winged; flowers in terminal thyrses. 

5. RHUS TYPHINA. 

ff. Three-celled with two ovules in each; style single; flowers irregular; 
stamens 6-8 (Aescidus); fruit covered with prickles, leaves pal- 
mately compound with 7 obovate leaflets. .6. A. HIPPOCASTANUM. 
dd. Calyx superior adnate to the ovary; flowers arranged in umbels; 
stamens 5; styles 5; fruit drupe-like with 5 cells each with a 
single ovule (Aralia); arborescent and armed with prickles. 

8. A. SPINOSA. 

bb. Apetalous without petals. 
c. Flowers not in catkins; pistil one, simple or compound, and the cells of ovary 

containing 1-2 seeds each. 

d. Ovary inferior adnate its whole length to the calyx -tube 1-celled and 
1-seeded; style 1 stigmatic down the side (Nyssa); fertile pedun- 
cles bearing each two or more flowers 9. N. MULTIFLORA. 

dd. Ovary superior, free from the calyx. 

e. Stipules sheathing the stem; trees with naked monoecious flowers 

arranged in heads 13. PLATANUS OCCIDENTALS. 

ee. Stipules not sheathing the stem, or none. 
/'. Ovules, a pair in each cell of the ovary, which becomes in 

g. Fruit, a double samara; leaves simple and palmately-veined (Acer); 
flowers appearing with the leaves in pendulous corymbs. 

7. A. SACCHARINUM. 

gg. Fruit, a 1-celled and 1-seeded samara (Fmxinus); flowers dioecious; 
calyx persistent at the terete base of the samara, 

10. F. AMERICANA. 
ff. Ovules single in each of the one or two cells of the ovary; stigmas two 

(Ulmacew). 

g. Fruit, a 1 celled samara winged all round (Ulmus), which is without 
a ciliate fringe, and nearly or quite sessile; leaves rough above, 



KEY, BASED UPON FLOWERS. 31 

oblong, ovate, acuminate and not very unequal at the base; 

anthers extrorse. . 11. U. FULVA. 

gg. Fruit a drupe; leaves long taper-pointed; anthers introrse. 

12. CELTIS OCCIDENTALIS. 

CC. Flowers diclinous, and one or both sorts in catkins. 
d. Only one sort (the staminate flowers), in catkins. 

e. Fertile flowers, single or clustered, and fruit naked; leaves pinnately 
compound (Juglandacece); calyx and corolla both present in the 
fertile flowers and 4 parted; fruit a try ma (Juglans), which is 

ovate-oblong and viscid-hairy 14. J. CINEREA. 

ee. Fertile flowers 1-3 together, invested wholly or partly with a many- 
scaled involucre; leaves simple. 

f. Involucre valveless, cup-like and only partly inclosing the one nut, i. e., 
acorn (Quercus), leaves smooth, thin, lobed with bristle-pointed 
lobes; acorns maturing the second year, and with involucral cup 
very shallow and composed of fine, closely appressed scales. 

15. Q. RUBRA. 
ff. Involucre 4-valved and inclosing two three-cornered nuts. 

16. FAGUS FERRUGINEA. 
dd. Both staminate and pistilate flowers in catkins. 

e. Ovary 1-celled and many-seeded; the seeds at maturity furnished with a 
hairy tuft (Salicacece); bracts of catkins lacerately fringed, calyx 
a disk-like cup; stamens 8-30; leaves broad (Populus); branchlets 
terete; leaves ovate-orbicular, acute and with large irregular 

teeth 18. P. GRANDIDENTATA. 

ee. Ovary 1-2-celled with a single ovule in each cell; calyx scale-like or 
none; stigmas 2, filamentous; fertile flowers arranged 2 or 3 
under each scale of the cone-like catkin (Betula); bark of trunk 
yellowish or grayish, peeling off in thin strips; fertile catkins 

short, erect 17. B. LUTEA. 

aa. Gymnospermae seeds naked, borne superficially on carpellary scales. Cone- 
bearing (Coniferce). 
b. Scales of cone many, each in the axil of a bract and bearing 2 inverted ovules; 

seeds winged. 

C. Leaves evergreen, fascicled; cones maturing the second year (Pinus), about 
half as long as the leaves, and with scales thickened at the apex 

but unarmed; leaves arranged in twos 19. P. RESINOSA. 

CC. Leaves evergreen, scattered (not fascicled); cones with thin scales, maturing 

the first year (Abies}. 
d. Cones erect, cylindrical, large 3-4 in., and with conspicuous bracts; leaves 

flat, linear 22. A. BALSAMEA. 

dd. Cones pendent and bracts inconspicuous. 

e. Small, 8 lines or less, scales entire at tip; leaves linear. 

21. A. CANADENSIS. 

ee. Larger, 1-1 \ in., scales eroded at tip; leaves 4-angled 20. A. NIGRA. 

ccc. Leaves deciduous, soft, needle-shaped and in fascicles of many each; cones 
about 8 lines in length, scales thin (Larix) and with inflected 

margins 23. L. AMERICANA. 

bb. Scales of cone few, without bracts and each bearing 2-8 erect ovules. 

C. Flowers monoecious; scales of the oblong cone dry and divergent at maturity; 

leaves evergreen THUJA OCCIDENTALS. 

CC. Flowers dioscious; scales fleshy and consolidated, making a small, dark blue, 
berry-like fruit; leaves scale-like and imbricated in 4 rows. 

25. JUNIPERUS VlRGINIANA. 



32 KEY, BASED UPON LEAVES. 



A KEY, BASED UPON THE LEAVES, 

Designed as an Aid in Identifying the Species of this Series when out of Season 
for Procuring the Flowers. 



N. B. In this Key no pretension is made to exclude species not of this series, and hence 
it is necessary in all cases to confirm identification, by a careful comparison with the more 
extensive description given of the species in its proper place. 

a. Deciduous Leaves falling in autumn. 
b. Simple Leaves. 

c. Laminate with well marked blade and petiole. 
d. Main rib single piunately veined. 
e. Entire or nearly so, pointed at both ends and alternate. 

/. Large, 5-10 in. long and tliinuish 1. MAGNOLIA ACUMINATA. 

ff. Small, 2-5 in. long, of thicker and firmer texture. 

9. NYSSA MTJLTIFLORA. 
ee. Serrate or dentate. 
/. Inequilateral and cordate or truncate at base. 

g. Ovate-orbicular, large, 4-5 in. or more in length. 

3. TILTA AMERICANA. 

gg. Ovate, long, taper-pointed from a broad base. 

12. CELT-IS OCCTDENTALIS. 

gg<J. Ovate-oblong, very rough, especially above, rugose. 

11. ULMUS pn.v \ 

ff. Equilateral and obtuse, rounded or only slightly cordate at base, thin 
and straight-veined. 

g. Ovate-oblong, teeth remote, one at the end of each vein, ciliate and 
covered with silky white hairs 16. FAGUS FERRUGTNEA. 

gg. Ovate, doubly-serrate, petioles downy and of aromatic flavor. 

17. BETULA LUTEA. 

f/f/f/. Orbicular-ovate, with large, irregular teeth and long petiole. 

18. POPULUS GRANDIDENTATA. 

eee. Pinnatifid or lobed. 
/. Oval, moderately pinnatifid, lobes bristle-pointed. 15. QUERCUS RUBRA. 

//. Broad, truncate at both base and apex, and with two spreading lobes 
on each side.. . 2. LIRIODENDRON TULIPIFERA. 



KEY, BASED UPON LEAVES. 33 

dd. Main ribs several palmately- veined. 

e. Ribs three at first, but soon five by branching; leaves alternate, tomen- 
tose while young; base of petiole concave and fitting over the 
axillary bud 13. PLATANUS OCCIDENTALS. 

ee. Ribs 5-7, from commencement ; leaves opposite, smooth , base of petiole sub- 
tending (not covering) the axillary bud . . 7. ACER SACCHARINUM. 

CC. Needle-shaped without distinction of blade and petiole, short, about 1 
in. in length, soft and in fascicles of many each. 

23. LARIX AMERICANA. 

bb. Compound Leaves. 

c. Palmate, with 7 obovate, serrate leaflets 6. AESCTLUS HIPPOCASTANUM. 

CC. Pinnate and with an odd terminal leaflet. 
d. Glabrous and petiolate. 

e. Leaflets numerous, 21-41, each with one or two pairs of glandular teeth 
at its base 4. AILANTHUS GLANDULOSUS. 

ee. Leaflets 7-9, ovate or lance-oblong, entire or very obscurely serrate. 

glaucous beneath 10. FRAXINUS AMERICANA. 


dd. Pubescent, especially along the petioles and rachis; leaflets sessile. 

e. Leaflets ovate -lanceolate, finely serrate; pubescence of short, rust-colored, 
clammy hairs 14. JUGLANS CINEREA. 

ee. Leaflets lanceolate-oblong, coarsely serrate; pubescence of copious, 
longer and whiter hairs 5. RHUS TYPHINA. 

bbb. Decompound Leaves and very large, with ovate, sessile, serrate leaflets and 
prickly petioles 8. ARALIA SPINOSA. 

aa. Evergreen Leaves remaining on over winter. 
b. Needle-shaped and quite stiff, pointing every way. 

c. Long, 5 8 in., in fascicles of 2 each, a broad, membranous sheath enclosing 
the base of each pair 19. PINUS RESINOSA. 

CC. Short, 8 lines or less, scattered (not in fascicles), 4-angled, usually more or 
less curved 20. ABIES NIGRA. 

bb. Linear, small, flat and diverging in two directions. 

c. Petioled, obscurely denticulate, 8 lines or less in length. 

21. ABIES CANADENSTS. 

cc. Sessile, entire, 8 lines or more in length 22. ABIES BALSAMEA. 

bbb. Scale- like or awl-shaped. 

c. Imbricated and closely appressed in four ranks, but making a conspicuously 
flat and two-edged branchlet 24. THUJA OCCIDENTALS. 

CC. Scale-like leaves, smaller, appressed in four ranks and making a rather 
4-angled than flat branchlet. Awl-shaped leaves arranged in 
whorls of three each 25. JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA. 

5 



34 KEY, BASED UPON FRUIT. 



A KEY, BASED UPON THE FRUIT, 

Designed as an Aid in Identifying the Species of this Series when in Season for 

Procuring the Fruit. 



N. B. The remarks concerning the use of the Key based upon the Leaves are equally true 
with reference to this. 

a. Free Fruit formed by the ripening of a single pistil either simple or com- 
pound. 
b. Indehiscent pericarp. 

c. Samara dry, 1-celled, 1-seeded and with 1-2 membranous wings. 

d. In terminal panicles; wing somewhat oblong-lanceolate, with a lenticular 
seed at about its center, and beyond which the wing is twisted 

(Ailanthus) 4. A. GLANDULOSUS. 

dd. In umbellate corymbs, each pedicel supporting a pair of samarae with 
oblanceolate wings obtuse at the apex, and with main rib on outer 

margin (Acer) 7. A. SACCHARINUM. 

ddd. In axillary racemes or panicles, winged at the apex with a more or less 
lanceolate obtuse wing (Fraxinus) terete at the base the seed 

portion 18. F. AMERICANA. 

dddd. In lateral fascicles or clusters, winged all round (Ulmus) very short 
pedicillate, nearly orbicular and margin not ciliate. 11. U. PULVA. 
CC. Drupe or drupe-like and with a single seed. 
d. Fibro fleshy and dryish pericarp. 

e. Small, subglobous (Rhus), in terminal thyrses and clothed with crimson 
acid hairs 5. R. TYPHINA. 

ee* Large, about 2 in., with edible embryo (Jnglans), ovoid or oblong, one or 
several together, sessile on a terminal peduncle, clothed with 

brownish, fragrant- viscid hairs 14. J. CINEREA. 

dd. Fleshy pericarp. 

. Ovoid, with striated stone (Nyssa), bluish black, about six lines in 
length, usually -clustered two or three together on a single 
axillary peduncle 9. N. MULTIFLORA. 

ee. Globular, purple, small, solitary and of sweet flavor (Celtis). 

12. C. OCCIDENTALIS. 

ccc. Drupe-like but containing more than one seed, subglobose. 

d. Five-seeded and crowned with the persistent calyx-teeth and styles (Aralia), 

purple-black, numerous, in panicked umbels 8. A. SPINOSA. 

dd. Two to five-seeded, bluish black with white bloom, scaly bracted under- 
neath (Juniperus) 25. J. VIRGTNIANA. 

CCCC. Nut hard, single coat, and furnished with an involucral cup or covering. 



KEY, BASED UPON FRUIT. 35 

d. Ovoid, oblong or ellipsoidal, surrounded at its base with an involucral cup 
(Quercus), which is shallow, saucer-shaped and composed of 
smooth, closely appressed scales 15. Q. RUBRA. 

(Id. Sharply 3-angled and in pairs, each pair invested with a 4-valved, dehis- 
cent involucre composed of prickly scales (Fagus). 

16. F. FERRUGINEA. 

tldd. Short, club-shaped, surrounded with stiff hairs, tipped with the per- 
sistent recurved style and arranged in globular heads (Platanus). 

13. P. OCCIDENTALS. 

CCCCC, Nut-like, but not invested with an involucre, globose, about as large as 
peas and arranged in cymes with a large, leaf -like bract attached 

to each peduncle (Tilia) 3. T. AMERICANA. 

bb. Dehiscent Pericarp. 

c. Subglobose, coriaceous, dehiscent by 2-3 valves and containing one or very 
few large seeds with smooth, shining coat and a large scar (Aes- 
culus)', fruit prickly and leaves of 7 leaflets. 

6. AES. HIPPOCASTANUM. 

CC. Small, ovoid-lanceolate pods arranged in catkins, opening by two valves and 
containing numerous seeds furnished with silky down (Populus). 

18. P. GRANDIDENTATA. 

(l(l. Aggregated Fruit composed of many carpels, either closed or open and 

cohering or closely massed together, forming a cone. 
b. Scales of the cone open carpels (Coniferce). 

. Scales many, persistent and spreading at maturity, each subtended by a bract; 

ovules 2, inverted. 

d. Maturing the year after flowering (Pimts), ovate -conical, about 2 in. long, 
smooth, carpellary scales slightly thickened at the apex, per- 
sistent 19. P. RESINOSA. 

dd. Maturing the first season, the autumn after blossoming. 

e* Ovoid or oblong, 1-2 in. long, pendent; bracts inconspicuous; scales per- 
sistent on the axis, thin and with eroded tip 20. ABIES NIGRA. 

ee. Ovoid, small, 8 lines or less, pendent, scales rounded and entire at tip. 

21. ABIES CANADENSIS. 
eee. Cylindrical, large, 2-4 in., erect; bracts conspicuous, exserted; scales 

falling from the axis at maturity 22. ABIES BALSAMEA. 

eeee. Ovoid or roundish, small, 9 lines or less, scales persistent on the axis 

at maturity 23. LARIX AMERICANA. 

CC. Scales few, persistent, bractless; ovules 2-8, erect; cone oblong with oblong, 
loosely imbricated scales somewhat thickened at the tip; seeds 

winged all round 24. THUJA OCCIDENTALS. 

bb. Scales 3-lobed bracts each subtending 2-3 closed, indehiscent carpels minia- 
ture saniarse (Betula) 17. B. LDTEA. 

bbb. Scales closed carpels, growing from an elongated receptacle and consolidated 
together. 

c. Dehiscent at maturity along the median line of the back, and letting out each 
1-2 berry-like seeds suspended by extensile threads (Magnolia). 

1. M. ACUMINATA. 
cc. Indehiscent at maturity and falling away as samarae. 

2. LlRIODENDRON TULIPIFERA 



A SYSTEMATIC STUDY 



SPECIES WHOSE WOODS ARE EEP RESENTED IN THE ACCOM- 
PANYING SECTIONS. 



The timbers comprised in the series, which this text is designed to 
accompany, belong to what are known, botanically speaking, as Flower- 
ing and Exogenous Plants. At the outset, therefore, we will, once for 
all, define these groups; and, as the characters herein given are equally 
true of all the species enumerated in the following pages, they need not 
be repeated in the further definition of the various sub-groups and 
species. 

FLOWERING OR PH^ENOGAMOUS PLANTS. 

Vegetables producing flowers which consist essentially of stamens and 
pistils, the latter bearing ovules or seeds. 

In distinction from the Flowering Plants are the Flowerless or Cryptogamous 
Plants, comprising the rest of the vegetable kingdom, from the very simply organ- 
ized Slime Moulds and Bacteria up to the highly organized Ferns and Club-Mosses. 
But in the study of timbers this group is unimportant, as only in a few rare cases do 
any of its representatives attain the dimensions of trees. Those exceptions are the 
Tree-Ferns of tropical countries gigantic ferns, which sometimes attain the height 
of fifty or sixty feet, with straight shafts quite like tree trunks and tops consisting 
of a bunch of enormous plume-like fronds. They, however, are of practically no 
value as timber. 

EXOGENOUS OR DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS. 

Flowering plants whose stems consist of a central column of pith sur- 
rounded by wood in concentric layers, and this in turn by bark; the 
stems increasing in thickness by the addition of a new layer each year to 
the wood externally and to the bark internally. Leaves mostly netted- 
veined. First leaves of the embryo (cotyledons) two and opposite, or 
(in the Coniferae) several iu a whorl. Parts of the flower in fours or 
fives, very rarely in threes. 



:.j8 llon.iiV AMKKH AN WOODS. 

A second class of Flo/rt /'i/i;/ Pl<intx and comprising the rest of tin* group is the 
Kit '/</'/< nous or Monocotyledon onx I'lu.ntx, characterized by having stems in which the 
wood occurs as threads or bundles running through a cellular, pith -like tissue, BO that 
a transverse section exhibits the wood as dots and not in concentric ring's. Leaves 
mostly parallel veint-d. Ftnbryo with single cotyledon, or rarely two, and then alter. 
nate and unequal. Parts of the Hower generally in threes. In southern Tnited 
States and elsewhere in or near the tropics trees are found, such as the Palms, etc., 
which belong to this class, but none that we have to do with at present. 

Exogenous plants are subdivided info two well-marked groups or sub- 
classes Anyiospcrmce and Gymnospcrinw. The former includes by far 
the greater part, of (be Flowering Plants, and is represented in Part I of 
tills work by eighteen species. Let it be understood, therefore, that its 
characters, omitted in further descriptions, apply equally to all the species 
up to and including the eighteenth. 

ANGIOSPKRM/E. 

Flowering, exogenous plants in which there is a complete pistil with 
stigma and closed ovary containing ovules which develop into seeds at 
maturity. This sub-class comprises many groups of plants known as 
Order*, a few of which will be 1 taken up in the following pages. Con- 
sidering them in the sequence commonly accepted by botanists, we will 
first characterize the 

(M;m;i; MAGNOLIACE^E: MAGNOLIA FAMILY. 

/Vc/rr.s- alternate, simple, coriaceous, entire or lobed (never toothed), marked with 
minute transparent dots, feather- veined; leal' buds covered with membranous 
stipules, which .'-non fall away. l^loiri y\ single, large, polypetalous. polyandrous, 
polygamous, hypogenous, perfect; sepals and petals colored alike, in three or more 
circles of three each, imbricated in the bud, deciduous; anthers adnate; pistils 
numerous, packed together and covering the elongated receptacle, and forming in 
Fruit a sort of fleshy OL dry cone containing one or two .seeds in each carpel, with a 
minute embryo in fleshy albumen. 

Trees or shrubs with aromatic and bitter bark. 



L<<II-<X folded lengthwise in the bud, embracing and embraced bv the sheathing 
stipules. Leaf buds conical. /<7o//vr.v large, fragrant; sepals :!; petals b'-9; anthers 
longer than the filaments and opening inward; carpels !3-valved and '.'seeded, aggre- 
gated and coherent in a mass. /*'/>/// a fleshy, somewhat woodv cone, each carpel 
opening at maturity along ji s back, letting out its 1 or 2 berry like seeds, sus- 
pended each by a long, extensile thread. 

Trees and shrubs, ((ieniis named in compliment to Prof. Pierre Magnol, an early 
French botanist.) 

i. MAGNOLIA ACUMINATA, L. 

Cl< T.MI'.KK TlJKK, MoCNTAJN MAUNOUA. 

(f cr., Jjanrjgvxpif-ztv Magnolia; Fr., Magnolia a feuillcs pointer; Sp., 

Magnolia a ami in ad a . 

Srr.riKtr CHARACTERS: Lir,x scattered along the branches (i. e., not gathered 
exclusively at the tips, as in some Magnolias), oblong or oval, acuminate, green 



1. MAGNOLIA AC UM IN ATA CUCUMBER TREE. 39 

both sides and slightly pubescent beneath; leaf -buds silky. Flowers (May, June) 
erect, of feeble odor, oblong, bell-shaped with obovate petals about 2 .or 3 in. (5 to 
8 cm.) in length, glaucous, greenish or bluish tinged with yellow. Fruit a cone 
2-3 in. (5-8 cm.) long, usually somewhat curved, giving the appearance of a cucum- 
ber; whence the common name Cucumber Tree. 

Fresh bark and leaves, when bruised, of a pleasant, aromatic odor and a bitter, 
aromatic flavor. (Specific name, acuminata, is Lat. for made pointed, acuminate, and 
is here applied to the shape of the leaf.) 

A large, handsome and symmetrically shaped tree, sometimes reaching 
the height of 100 ft. (30 m.), with a trunk 4 ft. (1.22 m.) in diameter, 
straight and cylindrical. It is particularly handsome when in bloom, 
as then the light green or yellowish blossoms show very prettily against 
the rich, dark green and rather dense foliage. Later, its curious fruit 
with dangling bright red seeds, gives the tree from near by, another, 
yet quite as pretty, aspect. 

HABITAT. Western New York to Illinois and southward along the 
Alleganies to the Gulf States, in rich, deep soil, particularly along slopes 
where the air is moist from the proximity of water. Eeaches its greatest 
development in the southern part of its range. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood soft, light, close-grained, durable and 
compact, yielding a satiny finish. Sap-wood is nearly white and the 
heart of a yellowish brown or somewhat olive color. The end of the 
grain in the log, assumes, soon after being cut, a bluish color. Specific 
Gravity, 0.4090; Percentage of Ash, 0.29; Relative Approximate Fuel 
Value, 0.4676; Coefficient of Elasticity, 92817; Modulus of Rupture, 
671; Resistance to Longitudinal Pressure, 415; Resistance to Indentation, 
107; Weight of a Cubic Foot in Pounds, 29.23. 

USES. This wood is extensively worked into furniture, especially of 
the cheaper grades, crates, packing-boxes, etc. It quite closely resem- 
bles the Tulip-wood, with which it is often confounded by careless 
observers, and, like that wood, is largely used in interior-finishing, as for 
doors, wainscots, etc. Its compactness makes it especially useful for 
bowls, troughs, general wooden- ware, pump-logs, cheese-boards, etc., 
for which it is extensively employed. 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. The bark of this species, and also that of 
other Magnolias, is officinal and possesses gently stimulant, aromatic, 
tonic and diaphoretic properties. The bark of the root is richest in 
these properties. It is useful in chronic rheumatism, and capable, if 
freely given, of arresting the paroxysms of intermittent fever. It has 
been used advantageously in these complaints and in remittents, especi- 
ally of a typhoid character. The dose of the recently dried bark in 
powder is from half a drachm to a drachm (1.95 to 3.9 Gm.), frequently 
repeated. The infusion may also be used, but is less efficient. Diluted 
alcohol extracts all the virtues of the medicine; and a tincture, made by 



40 HOUGH'S AMERICAN WOODS. 

macerating the fresh bark or fruit in brandy, is a popular remedy in 
chronic rheumatism.* 

NOTE. A very thin longitudinal section of this timber, looked 
through in the dark toward a lighted lamp, shows an interesting and 
pretty phenomenon. As it is held with the grain horizontal, there is 
seen to the right and left of the light or the lighted point directly in 
range with the light a display of the prismatic colors, which is quite 
brilliant and beautiful. They seem like miniature sundogs, and there 
are two or three of them on each side of the light, those nearest being 
brightest. 

A microscopic examination reveals the cause of this interesting appear- 
ance. The wood is found to be copiously supplied with spiral ducts, i. e., 
ducts whose walls are marked with a spiral thickening (See 11, p. 2). 
These spirals are so small that their coils would number several thousand 
to the inch. They can be distinctly traced by varying the focus of the 
instrument; but, at a certain focus, where only one side of the spiral can 
be seen, they seem like rows of parallel crystals or prisms, and it is by 
these that the light is refracted, causing the display of colors quite as the 
crystals of frost in the air in winter cause the colors in the sundogs. 

GENUS LIRIODENDRON, L. 

Leaves folded crosswise in the bud, each infolding all that is interior to it, and is 
itself infolded by its pair of stipules and the next lower leaf, and so on; buds flat, 
the large, sheathing, oval stipules caducous. Flowers showy, with 3 reflected cadu- 
cous sepals, and 6 erect petals in two rows, making a bell-shaped corolla; anthers 
linear, opening outward; carpels flat, scale-like, long and narrow, imbricating and 
cohering together in an elongated dry cone, separating at maturity and falling away 
whole as samarae, somewhat lanceolate in shape and each bearing 1-2 seeds in its 
base, indehiscent. 

Trees of fine aspect. (Name from the Gk. X.Eipiov, lily, and devdpov, tree.} 



2. LIRIODENDRON TULIPIFERA, L. 

TULIP TREE, WHITE-WOOD, WHITE OR YELLOW " POPLAR," CANOE- 
WOOD. 

Ger., Tulpenbaum; Fr., Tulipier; Sp., Tulip if 'ero. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS : Leaves dark green, very smooth and shining, truncate, 
with two spreading lobes separated by a broad, shallow sinus at the apex, and with 
two lateral lobes near the base, 3-5 in. (8-13 cm.) in length and of about the same 
width, long petioles. Flowers (May, June) solitary, erect, more bell-shaped than the 
common garden tulip, greenish yellow marked with orange. Fruit (September) a 
greenish cone 2-3 inch. (5-8 cm.) in length, the scales of which in reality so many 
samerse persisting long after the leaves have fallen, and then more or less spread- 
ing and bleached nearly white, give the tree in winter a very characteristic 
appearance. 

(Tnlipifera from Persian toulyban, a turban whence from resemblance in the flower 
the Eng. " tulip " and Lat. fero, I bear.} 

*U. S. Dispensatory, 15th ed., pp. 916-917. 



2. LlRIODENDRON TuLIPIFERA TULIP TREE. 41 

One of our grandest trees, sometimes 150 ft. (46 m.) in height and 
with a trunk JO ft. (3 m.) in diameter at the base, columnar, and of great 
length. Branches regularly disposed. The bruised bark or leaves, when 
fresh, possess a rather pleasant aromatic odor and bitter, pungent flavor. 

HABITAT. Southern New England, New York and Ontario to Michi- 
gan and thence southward nearly to the Gulf coast, reaching its maxi- 
mum development between the Alleganies and the Mississippi. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood light, rather strong, with close, 
straight grain, compact, easily worked and yielding a satiny finish. Sap- 
wood nearly white; heart-wood of a light lemon yellow color, or some- 
times of a brownish tint whence its two seemingly contradictory 
names, White and Yellow Poplar, the former referring to the sap- 
wood and the latter to the heart. The name "Poplar," though, is 
wrongly applied to this species, as it is very different from and much 
more valuable than the true Poplar. Specific Gravity, 0.4230; 
Percentage of Ash, 0.23 ; Relative Approximate Fuel Value, 0.4220; 
Coefficient of Elasticity, 92667; Modulus of Rupture, 657; Resistance 
to Longitudinal Pressure, 372; Resistance to Indentation, 82; Weight of 
a Cubic Foot in Rounds, 26.36. 

USES. This timber, being comparatively tough and -easily worked, is 
extensively substituted in localities where abundant for the white pine 
in interior-finishing doors, panels, wainscoting, and is sometimes 
used for boat-building, shingles, etc. It very much resembles cucumber- 
wood, and is largely used for the same purposes as that timber for 
pump-logs, bowls and wooden-ware in general. It is said to make excel- 
lent charcoal. Paper has been made from the bark.* The name canoe- 
wood was given to this timber from the fact that the Indians found it 
one of the very best for use in making their "dug-out" canoes, and they 
are said to have made them large enough sometimes to carry twenty or 
thirty persons in a single canoe. 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. The bark, especially of the roots, possesses 
medical properties which are " stimulant, tonic and diaphoretic. It 
has been used as a substitute for Peruvian bark in intermittent fevers, 
and has proved serviceable in chronic rheumatism, dyspepsia, and other 
complaints in which a gentle stimulant and tonic impression is desirable. 
The dose of the bark in powder is from half a drachm to two drachms. 
The infusion and decoction are also use'd, but are less efficient. They 
may be prepared in the proportion of an ounce of the bark to a pint of 
water and given in the quantity of one or two fluid ounces. The dose 
of the saturated tincture is a fluid drachm.-" f 

* Elements of Forestry. By Franklin B. Hough, p. 250. 
ttf". 8. Dispensatory, 15th ed., p. 1687. 

6 



42 HOUGH'S AMERICAN WOODS. 

The above is what we learn from officinal source, but it might not be 
out of place to further mention that in Micheaux "Sylva" (vol. II., 
pp. 41 and 42) we find that, "combined with laudanum (which makes it 
more easily borne in the stomach), it has frequently dissipated alarming 
symptoms of pulmonary consumption. It has also been successfully 
used in a case of catarrh complicated with dyspepsia, in hysterical 
affections (in the latter case combined with a small quantity of lauda- 
num), in cholera infantum, and as a remedy for worms. In a persistent 
case of remittent fever it was found more efficacious than Peruvian 
bark." 

ORDER TILIACEJE LINDEN FAMILY. 

Leaves simple, stipulate, alternate, dentate. Flowers polypetalous, or rarely 
apetalous, axillary, hypogenous, usually perfect and polyadelphous; sepals 4-5, decidu- 
ous, valvate in the bud; petals 4-5 imbricated in the bud; stamens numerous and 
with versatile anthers; ovary of 2-10 united carpels; styles united and stigmas as 
many as the carpels. Fruit dry or succulent, many celled, or, by abortion, 1 -celled, 
each cell bearing from one to several seeds. 

Represented by trees, rarely shrubs or herbs. 

GENUS TILIA, L. 

Leaves more or less heart-shaped and oblique, serrate; stipules deciduous. Flowers 
cream color, in small cymes, hanging on an axillary peduncle, which is adnate to the 
vein of a large, leaf -like bract; sepals 5, united, colored; petals 5, spatulate-oblong; 
stamens numerous, the filaments cohering in clusters, and with each cluster in the 
American species is a spatulate, petal-like scale, placed opposite each of the real 
petals; ovary superior, 5-celled with 2 ovules in each cell; style single, stigma 
5-toothed. Fruit a globose and rather woody nut, 1-celled by abortion and 
1-2-seeded. In the dissemination of these, the leaf-like bract, described above, acts 
as a parachute. 

Trees. (" Tilia " is the ancient Latin name of the Linden.) 



3. TILIA AMERICANA, L. 

BASSWOOD, AMERICAN LINDEN OR LIN, LIME-TREE, BEE-TREE. 

Ger., Amerikanisclie Linde; Fr., Tilleul d' Amerique; Sp., Tilio 

Americano. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS: Leaves large, 3-5 in. (8-13 cm.) or more in length and about 
as broad, more or less heart shaped and unequal at the base, serrate, pointed, green 
on both sides and glabrous or nearly so. Flowers cream-color, richly fragrant and 
honey-bearing, each flower having interior to its petals and opposite them, five petal- 
like bodies, at the bases of which are the stamens arranged in clusters or tufts. 

A large and important forest tree in the Northern and Middle States, 
growing in loose, rich soil, and often attaining the dimensions of 80 ft. 
(24 m.) or more in height and 4 ft. (1.22 m.) in thickness of trunk near 
the base. When growing in open fields, the top develops symmetrically 
and to a large size. 



3. TILIA AMERICANA BASSWOOD. 43 

HABITAT. North-eastern United States and, less abundantly, 
Canada, westward to Nebraska and Kansas, and southward along the 
Alleganies to the Gulf States. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood light, soft, quite tough, close-grained, 
compact and easily worked. Sap-wood, when properly seasoned, is very 
light colored, nearly white, but as more often seen is tinted with a brown 
or yellowish color; heart, light brown. Specific Gravity, 0.4525; Per- 
centage of Ash, 0.55; Relative Approximate Fuel Value, 0.4500; Coeffi- 
cient of Elasticity, 84010; Modulus of Rupture, 589; Resistance to 
Longitudinal Pressure, 348; Resistance to Indentation, 63; Weight of a 
Cubic Foot in Pounds, 28.20. 

USES. This timber is useful for many purposes, taking the place of 
pine in some localities, and very largely the place of the tulip and 
cucumber wood north of the range of those timbers. It is extensively used 
for furniture, especially drawer-backs and sides, sometimes for interior- 
finishing, for wooden- ware, etc., and to some extent for paper pulp and 
charcoal. A use for which it is particularly adapted on account of its 
toughness is the manufacture of panels, carriage and cutter boxes, dashes, 
etc. For getting out lumber for this latter use, we have recently seen a 
new and very ingeniously devised machine, used at first at least with this 
kind of timber exclusively. It is for sawing around the log, thus making 
a board as long as the log and perhaps a hundred feet broad, when the 
log is very large a curious looking board as it stands on end (of the 
grain), coiled up like a huge roll of carpeting. 

The inner bark of this wood, known as bast, whence the name Bast- 
wood or Basswood, is very fibrous and used, after macerating, in the 
manufacture of matting and an inferior cordage. 

A by no means unimportant point of value in connection with this 
tree is the most excellent honey which its flowers yield in abundance, and 
so active are the myriads of bees and other insects in gathering this dur- 
ing the flowering season that the din of their humming may be heard 
some yards from the tree. 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. None are omcinally recognized in this 
country. In Europe, however, Aqua Tilice, which is an infusion of the 
flowers, buds and leaves of the various species of Tilia, is said to possess 
anti-spasmodic and cephalic properties. It is used as a domestic remedy 
in cases of indigestion, nervousness, etc. (Nat. Dispensatory, 2d ed., 
1429.)* 

ORDER SIMARUBACEJE. 

Leaves generally compound and alternate, inodorous and not bearing pellucid dots. 
Flowers polypetalous, regular, 3-5-numerous, hypogenous, perfect or polygamous; 

*U. S. Census, 1880, vol. IX, p. 27. 



44 HOUGH'S AMERICAN WOODS. 

stamens distinct and usually as many or twice as many as the sepals; pistils 2-5, 
separate or combined into a compound ovary of as many cells, sessile or raised on a 
prolongation of the receptacle; styles mostly cohering, Fruit usually capsular, 1-2 
seeds in each carpel. 
Shrubs and trees. 

GENUS AILANTHUS, DESF. 

Leaves pinnate. Flowers small and greenish in panicles, polygamous; sepals 5, 
more or less united at the base; petals 5 ; stamens in the perfect'flowers 2-3, in the 
monoecious flowers 10; ovaries 2-5, styles lateral. Fruit 1 -eel led, 1 -seeded, linear- 
oblong, thin, veiny sainara3. 

Trees and shrubs. 

(Ailanthus is formed from the Molucca name Ailanto or Aylanto.} 

4. AILANTHUS GLANDULOSUS, DESF. 

AILANTHUS, TREE-OF-HEAVEN. 

Ger., Driisiger Gotterbaum; Fr., Ailante glanduleux; Sp., Barniz 

falso de Japan. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS: Leaves glabrous, sometimes 4 ft. (1.22 m.) long, pinnately 
compound with 10-20 pairs of leaflets and an odd terminal one; leaflets pointed, oblong- 
lanceolate or ovate, with one or two glandular teeth near the base, short- petiolate 
excepting the terminal one which is long-petiolate. Flowers (May, June) in terminal 
panicles, polygamous, small, greenish and of disagreeable odor. 

(The specific name, glandulosus, is a Latin word meaning gland-bearing.} 

A large tree of rapid growth, luxuriant foliage and rather smooth bark. 

HABITAT. An introduced tree of hardy nature. It grows well with 
us in nearly all localities, and in places seems thoroughly naturalized. 
It is a native of China and Japan. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood not very hard, of medium weight and 
rather open grain; light brownish yellow; sap-wood lighter than the 
heart, and the line of transition from sap to heart is marked by an orange- 
colored band. 

USES. The timber is very little used in this country, but in Europe 
is used in the manufacture of wooden-ware and for charcoal. In this 
country the Ailanthus is principally useful as a shade tree, and is espe- 
cially suited to planting in city parks and along streets, owing to its very 
rapid growth and handsome ample foliage. However, it has one bad 
trait, which in the minds of those living near it often countervails 
all that may be said in its favor;: the odor which its blossoms emit is very 
disagreeable and sickening. Considering that, the name Trce-of- Heaven 
seems to be very wrongly applied. All we can say is that it is a transla- 
tion of the Molucca name, Ailanto, which is said to be given to it on 
account of its lofty growth. Its growth may seem lofty enough in the 
Moluccas to justify such an appellation, but if could hardly be compared 
with many of our native American trees. In China and some parts of 
Europe the leaves afford food for a species of silk-worm, which produces 
an excellent quality of silk. 



5. BHUS TYPHINA SUMACH. 45 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. The bark, which possesses a pungent bitter 
taste, has been found to possess "active anthelmintic properties. In a 
pondered state, in dose from 7 or 8 to 30 grains (0.46 to 1.95 Gin.), it 
has been given in several cases of tape-worm in the human subject, and 
has proved remarkably successful in causing its expulsion, at the same 
time having a not very violent cathartic action. In China the bark is 
very popular as a remedy for dysenteric and other bowel complaints. 5 ' * 

ORDER ANACARDIACE/E, CHESHEW FAMILY. 

Leaves alternate, simple or compound, without pellucid dots; stipules none. 
Flowers polypetalous, small, often polygamous, regular and furnished with bracts; 
sepals 3-5, united at the base, persistent; petals 5 (or sometimes wanting), imbricated 
in the bud; stamens 5, alternate with the petals, perigynous; ovary free, 1 -celled and 
1-ovuled; styles or stigmas 3. Fruit a berry or drupe, the seed containing no 
albumen. 

Trees or shrubs with a milky resinous or gummy acrid juice, which as well as the 
exhalations are often poisonous. 

GENUS RHUS, L. 

Leaves mostly compound. Flowers greenish or yellowish, often imperfect by 
abortion; styles 3; stigmas capitate. Fruit a small, indehiscent, 1-seeded, dry drupe. 
(The name Rhus is the old Latin and Greek for the Sumac.) 



5. RHUS TYPHINA, L. 

SUMACH, STAG-HORN SUMACH, VIRGINIAN SUMACH. 
Ger., Hirschkolben Sumach; Fr., Sumac; Sp., Zumaque. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. Leaves odd-pinnate with 11-31 oblong-lanceolate pointed 
and serrate leaflets more or less pubescent beneath. Branches, leaf-stalks etc. 
densely velvety hairy. Flowers (June) polygamous in terminal thyrses. Fruit 
globular, clothed with very acid crimson hairs and containing a smooth stone. Not 
poisonous to the touch as are some representatives of the genus. 

A small tree, with thick straggling branches, very rarely attaining the 
dimensions of 20 ft. (6 m.) in height and 10 in. (0.25 m.) in diameter of 
trunk at base; often hardly more than a shrub. The bark when 
bruised yields an abundant milky and sticky juice. The leaves put on 
their bright autumnal tints early, and the compact bunches of downy 
red fruit on the tips of the branches give the tree a striking and charac- 
teristic appearance after the leaves have fallen. The name "Stag-horn" 
is given to this species from the resemblance we see in the soft velvety 
coating of the twigs, to that of the stags antlers when growing and " in 
the velvet." The branching of the tree likewise is quite suggestive of 
the branching of a pair of antlers. 

*U. S. Dispensatory, 15th ed., p. 1564. 



4'i Ho TOR'S AMERICAN WOODS. 

HABITAT. Canada and north-eastern United States, westward to 
Minnesota and reaching its southern-most limit along the Alleganies, 
growing in stony sandy soil, particularly on open hill-sides, where we 
often find it in extensive thickets. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood light, soft, brittle, rather close- 
grained, of a markedly greenish and yellowish color and somewhat 
aromatic. The sap-wood which occupies scarcely one annual ring is 
nearly white next the hark, and of a handsome gold and orange color 
farther in. When freshly worked the wood is very beautiful, but in 
time loses in part the brightness of its colors. Specific Gravity, 0.4357; 
Percentage of Ash, 0.50; Relative Approximate Fuel Value, 0.4335; 
Weic/lit of a Cubic Foot in Pound*, 27.15. 

USES. Timber cannot be obtained in large enough pieces to be of 
great utility. It is occasionally used as choice pieces for inlaying cabinet- 
work, where it finishes nicely and has a beautiful effect. The wood is 
said sometimes to be used in dyeing. The bark and leaves as well as the 
fruit are used for the same purpose. 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. None are officially recognized of this 
species, although some are ascribed to the closely allied Smooth Sumach 
(It. (jlabra). Of that the berries are astringent and refrigerant, a 
decoction or diluted fluid extract of which especially in combination 
with the chlorate of potassium affords an effective and pleasant gargle 
in inflammation and ulceration of the throat.* 

The root has been found efficacious in fevers. f 

ORDER SAPINDACE^E : SOAPBEKKY FAMILY. 

Leaves simple or compound. Flmrers poly petal cms, often irregular and mostly 
symmetrical: sepals aud petals each -4-5, imbricated in the bud, the petals inserted 
with the 5-10 stamens on a perigyuous or hypogeuous disk; ovary 2-8-celled and 
lobed, usually l-'3 ovules in each cell, embryo mostly convoluted; no albumen. 
Fruit a membranous, inflated pod, a leathery thick subspherical pod with nut-like 
seeds, or a winged samara. 

OKNTTS ;ES( 1 ULTIS, L. 

Lear?*, opposite, digitately compound, destitute of stipules; leaflets serrate and 
straight-veined. Flnircr* paniculate, terminal, unsymmet rical, irregular, often 
polygamous; pedicels jointed; calyx tubular, 5-toothed, often rather gibbous at the 
basef corrolla irregular, 4 or sometimes 5-petaled, nearly hypogenous; stamens 6-8, 
usually 7, distinct and often unequal, with long and slender filaments; style 1, fili- 
form; ovary ) celled, with 2 ovules in each cell, only one of which, or one in each 
cell comes to maturity. Ffuil roundish, coriaceous, dehiscent, 2 8 valved, contain- 
ino-'l :', lar"-e smooth, leathery and shining seeds, each with a large, pale scar; 
cotyledons thick, bulky and inseparable, rich in starch, but of bitter taste, remaining 
underground in germination. 

(A<'M-n/,nx is a Latin name, but in ancient times applied to a kind of oak.) 



* /7 ,S' J >;*)>( n.*dt or if, Ifithed., p. 1-44. 

tG. H. Emerson's 7W* ,nl Mrufi* of Max*achnseUs. 



6. JESCULUS HlPPOCASTANUM HORSE CHESTNUT. 4? 

6. ^ESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM, L. 

HOUSE CHESTNUT. 
Ger., Roszlcastanie; Fr., Marronier (T Inde; Spi, Castarlo de caballo. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS: Leaves digitately compound, with seven obovate or some- 
what wedge-shaped, serrate leaflets. Flowers (May, June) in very showy pyramidal 
racemes; petals five, spreading, white or with a pink flush, spotted with purple and 
yellow; stamens declined. There are double-flowered, variegated and other varieties 
with more or less lobed or cut-leaves. 

(Hippocastanum is from Gk. zWoS, horse, and udGrcLvov, chestnut. The name 
is applied to the tree from the fact that in some parts of Europe its fruit is employed 
in veterinary medicine.) 

A very common and handsome shade-tree, usually of medium size, 
though sometimes attaining the dimensions of 80 ft. (24 m.) in height, 
and 4 ft. (1.22 m.) in thickness of trunk at base. While in blossom, 
this is one of our most showy trees, with its numerous pyramids of 
handsome flowers contrasting boldly with the dark green and copious 
foliage. 

HABITAT. As this is an introduced tree, no particular habitat in 
this country could be given. It grows well and quite rapidly wherever 
planted in the United States, especially in the Middle and Southern 
States. The climate here in Northern New York seems a little too rigor- 
ous for it. Its native country is supposed to be Asia, whence it 
has been extensively introduced into Europe and thence into the United 
States, where it is now abundant in parks and along streets as an orna- 
mental shade tree. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood light, soft and very close-grained, 
whitish, slightly tinted with yellow. 

USES. In this country this timber could hardly be said to be put to 
any particular use at present as it is not in the market, and, with our 
numerous native timbers, we scarcely feel the need of it. In Europe it 
is of value in the hands of carvers and turners, which we would naturally 
infer from its soft, fine and close-grained nature. The bark, which is 
bitter and astringent, has been used for tanning and dyeing, and an 
extract of the wood is said to be used in dying silk black. The kernels 
of the. nuts possess a saponaceous substance in such abundance that, 
when powdered, they may be used for washing. The abundance of 
starch which they contain is pleasant to the taste and nutritive, after 
counteracting the bitter principle by means of an alkaline solution. 
They also make very good food for cattle, sheep, swine and horses. 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. "The bark has been used as a substitute 
for cinchona bark as an antiperiodic for use in intermittent fevers etc. 
Dose half an ounce in twenty-four hours given in the form of a decoc- 



48 HOUGH'S AMERICAN WOODS. 

tion. A fixed oil from the kernels, extracted by means of ether, has 
been used in France as a topical remedy in rheumatism." * 

GENUS ACER, TOURN. 

Leaves opposite, simple, palinately-veined, 5- or occasionally 3-lobed; stipules 
none. Flowers small, in axillary racemes or corymbs, regular, polygamo-dioecious, 
usually unsymmetrical ; pedicels not jointed; sepals 5 (or 4-9), more or less united, 
colored; petals sometimes wanting, but, when present, 5 (or 4-9), equal and furnished 
with short claws; stamens, commonly 8; ovary 2-lobed, formed of 2 united carpels, 
each bearing 2 ovules, only one of which commonly attains maturity; styles 2, long 
and slender, united only below and stigmatic down the inside. Fruit a double 
samara, finally separating when mature and ready to fall, the wings strengthened 
by a rib along one margin; cotyledons, long and thin. 

(Ancient Latin name of the Maple.) 



7. ACER SACCHARINUM, WANG. 

SUGAR MAPLE, HARD MAPLE, ROCK MAPLE, SUGAR-TREE. 
Ger., Zuker Aliorn\ Fr., Erable d sucre; Sp., Acer de azucar. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS: Leaves more or less cordate at the base; 3-5-lobed with 
rounded sinuses and pointed remotely sinuate-toothed lobes; rather pale and glau- 
cous, or slightly downy on the veins beneath. Flowers in handsome pendulous 
umbellate-corymbs, with long thread-like hairy pedicels, greenish-yellow and 
appearing with the leaves; calyx hairy at the apex*; petals none. Wings of the fruit 
only slightly diverging. A variety known as var. nigrum, the Black Maple (con- 
sidered by some as a distinct species, A. nigrum), is characterized by having leaves 
with closed sinuses, divaricate lobes and rather paler, usually slightly pubescent 
under surface; wings of the fruit more diverging. 

(Saccharinum is Latin for "sugar.") 

This tree when growing in the forest sometimes attains a height of 
100 ft. (30 m.) or more, with a trunk perhaps 50 ft. (15 m.) long and 4 
ft. (1.22 m.) in diameter at the base. In such situations the tops are 
usually unsymmetrical and the trunks often more or less crooked and 
leaning. Growing in the open it has a very different appearance. The 
tops are there very large and developed with great symmetry and density 
of foliage, more or less ovoid in outline and with short, thick and 
straight trunks. 

HABITAT. Canada westward as far as the shores of Lake Superior, 
and reaching its northern-most limit along the coast. North-eastern 
United States, westward to the Mississippi, and southward along the 
mountains to western North Carolina, in calcareous and loamy soil, often 
being the principal if not the exclusive timber of tracts of forest. In 
the Adirondack forests we have noticed this tree particularly, and there 
find it in its greatest vigor of development. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood very hard hence the name "Hard 
Maple " heavy, close-grained, compact and strong. The most perfectly 

*U. S. Dispensatory, 15th ed., pp. 1561-2. 



7. ACER SACCHARINUM SUGAR MAPLE. 49 

seasoned sap-wood is of a light, slightly yellowish color; the heart-wood 
brownish of various tints. Specific Gravity, 0.6912; Percentage of Ash, 
0.54; Relative Approximate Fuel Value, 0.6875; Coefficient of Elasticity, 
146108; Modulus of Rupture, 1149; Resistance to Longitudinal Pres- 
sure, 619; Resistance to Indentation, 257; Weight of a Cubic Foot in 
Pounds, 43.08. 

USES. This is one of the most useful trees of Canada, New England 
and the Middle States. Its timber is used in the manufacture of furni- 
ture, for interior finishing, flooring, ship-building especially for keels 
etc., where great durability and strength are required shoe-lasts, pegs, 
wooden-ware etc. Wooden-bowls of this timber are considered the best 
in market. It makes excellent fuel, and its ashes are very rich in alkali, 
yielding much of the potash andperlash of commerce. 

Maple Sugar in the tastes of many the most delicious of sweets is 
almost exclusively the product of this tree, the very small quantity 
which is made from other Maples, being in proportion very insignificant. 
It is made by evaporing the sap to a proper consistency, and then pour- 
ing into moulds, where it hardens in cake form, or it is stirred while 
cooling so as to make a granulated sugar. The sap is procured by tap- 
ping the trees, usually with a to f in. auger, in early spring, some weeks 
before the buds begin to swell, and into the hole a spout is driven to 
carry the sap away from the tree. It drops from the spout in good 
weather, at the rate Of from 30-100 or more drops per minute into a 
bucket placed to catch it. It is then clear and colorless, seeming quite 
like water, and of a slightly sweetish flavor. About 3 or 4 gallons are 
usually required to make a pound of sugar, the sweetness of the sap 
varying more or less with different trees. In quality, too, if not also in 
sweetness, it is variable in the same tree, being better early in the 
season than later. Two or three pounds or less of sugar per tree is the 
ordinary average yield when the trees are standing close to each other, 
as in groves, but where isolated or thinly scattered, so that the .tops are 
extensively developed, the yield is much larger. In the small sugar 
"bush" or "orchard" (as a Maple grove used for sugar-making is 
called) of about seventy-five trees, which we have, we get an average 
yield of five or six pounds per tree in good seasons; but it must be 
borne in mind that the trees are very large and scattered, having fully 
developed tops. They are tapped with one spout; it is customary with 
some to use two or more. A few select trees would probably yield eight 
or ten pounds each in a season. 

Tapping when prudently done does not seriously impair the health of 
the tree. Naturally it kills the fiber for a little way, directly above and 
below the place of tapping, but in two or three years new wood forms 
7 



50 HOUGH'S AMERICAN WOODS. 

over the hole, and in a few years all traces are obliterated from external 
view. My father observes * that " upon some farms in Vermont and 
northern New York, more profit is realized from a maple wood-land 
than could possibly be gained upon an equal area by any agricultural 
.crop." 

NOTE. There are peculiar freaks sometimes in the growth of timber, 
and how and why these occur are interesting problems in the minds of 
vegetable physiologists, thus far unsolved as they probably must always 
remain. Two or three forms of these freaks occur especially though 
we could not say exclusively in the timber now before us, and so 
interesting and important are they from a commercial point of view, and 
so beautiful, that we have decided to exhibit them in the accompanying 
sections, and this text would certainly be very incomplete without men- 
tion of so important timber products. 

The forms to which we refer are commonly known as " figures," and 
certain ones, such as the "Blister" "Birds-eye" or "Pin" and 
et Curley" figures much more frequently occur for some unknown 
reason in the Maples than any other timber with which we are acquainted. 
The first two might almost be said to be peculiar to the Hard Maple, and 
we have exhibited them along with the plain timber of that species as 
their proper place. The last mentioned figure, Curley, is found in 
the Hard Maple, but also and perhaps even more commonly in the 
larger Soft Maples, and hence has been left to be shown in connection 
with them in a succeeding part of this work. The three figures are often 
found in the Hard Maple, more or less mixed, but for our sections, 
standing as specimens of the various forms, we have endeavored to select 
timbers as exclusively representing those particular forms as conveniently 
possible. 

In the untouched tree, as it occurs in the forest, it takes an experienced 
eye to detect a figure, so slight are the evidences before the timber is 
exposed. To such an eye a slight pit or elevation in the bark, or a pecu- 
liar form of trunk or top, means a great deal. With such a man of 
experience (John Brown, Esq., of Lowville, N. Y.), who gathers this 
timber quite extensively for the market, it has been our pleasure to visit 
forests occasionally, in quest of these figured timbers. From him we 
have learned to read in the bark of the trees signs which we never knew 
if we ever even saw before. It is principally from that schooling that we 
are able to note the following facts concerning the figured Maples as they 
appear in the tree. 

The BLISTER MAPLE, as the Blister figure of the Hard Maple is 
usually called, is so named from the resemblance which its polished sur- 

* Elements of Forestry, p. 236. 



7. ACER SACCHARINUM SUGAR MAPLE. 51 

face gives to a surface covered with blisters. Some call it "Landscape " 
Maple from the suggestions seen in it of a mountainous landscape, as 
imagined from some great height. The name is certainly very applicable 
to some specimens, as the fancied representation of mountain ranges, 
isolated peaks and deep valleys is very complete. A purely blister 
figure is the rarest of the three varieties above mentioned. One might 
have to examine many hundreds of trees before finding one nicely blis- 
tered. The one used for the accompanying sections was the best one 
found in the examination of actually thousands of trees such is the 
rarity of a purely blister figure. Trees are more often found where it is 
combined with the bird's-eye and curly figures. 

The trunk of a Blister Maple tree usually seems massive for the size of 
the top. Upon striking off a piece of the bark, the surface of the wood 
is found to be covered with wart-like eminences quite like the surface of 
a rough, warty squash. The inside surface of the bark is pitted to cor- 
respond with the prominences of the wood. The figure is best near the 
bark, growing poorer as we approach the heart; and, to show it to best 
advantage, the log is cut into veneering by means of a huge lathe, 
which turns off a great shaving the length of the log, and round and 
round it until the heart is reached, or as long as the figure lasts. This 
gives the tangential view of the grain, as shown in the sections. The 
transverse and radial views are rarely if ever seen in the commercial 
veneering, but are interesting here as showing, from all sides so to speak, 
the peculiar formation of the figure. 

The BIRD'S-EYE MAPLE, or BIRD'S-EYE FIGURE OF THE HARD MAPLE, 
is so called from the appearance of birds' eyes, which, in a certain aspect, 
its polished surface presents. It is more common than the distinctly 
blister figure, and much that we see has the latter combined with it. 
It is rarely if ever found, so far as our experience goes, in the Soft- 
Maples. In the tree a bird's-eye figure may be detected by characteristic 
pits in the bark, but they are usually inconspicuous. The top of the 
tree often seems small and rather scraggy for the size of the trunk. On 
removal of the bark the wood is found to be deeply pitted instead of 
warty, as in the Blister Maple and in the bark are projections, or little 
nibs, corresponding with the pits in the wood. On examination of a 
transverse section of the wood,- we find that these pits are shown in the 
grain nearly to the center of the tree, and present the appearance of so 
many pins pointing in toward the center from the bark. Hence the 
name, "Pin " Maple, which is sometimes applied to this form. The 
"pins," when cut across i. e., in a section tangential to the grain 
as seen in most of the veneering, present the "eyes," as they are called 
from something of a resemblance to birds' eyes. 



52 HOUGH'S AMERICAN WOODS. 

ORDER ARALIACEJE : GINSENG FAMILY. 

Leaves mostly compound and alternate, petioles dilated and sometimes thickened 
at the base; stipules none. Flowers small, polypetalous (or rarely apetalous), often 
polygamous, mostly umbellate and the umbels solitary, racemed or panicled; calyx 
adherent to the ovary; its small limb being entire or toothed; petals 5-10 valvate (not 
inflected) in the bud; stamens of same number as petals and alternate with them; 
styles and cells of the ovary usually more than two (3-5). Fruit baccate or drupa- 
ceous, 3-5-celled, one seed in each cell; albumen fleshy. 

Represented by trees, shrubs and herbs. 

GENUS ARALIA, TOURN. 

Leaves compound or decompound. Flowers white or greenish; calyx with teeth 
nearly or quite obsolete; petals 5, spreading, oblong or obovate, epigynous, decidu- 
ous; stamens epigynous; styles mostly distinct and slender, in sterile flowers short 
and united. Fruit as described for the order. 

(Derivation of name obscure.) 



8. ARALIA SPINOSA, L. 

HERCULES'-CLUB, ANGELICA-TREE, TOOTHACHE-TREE. 

Ger., Dornige Bergangelike; Fr., Aralia espineuse; Sp., Aralia espinosa. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS: Leaves very large, pinnately decompound, with ovate, 
pointed, serrate, sessile leaflets, pale glaucous beneath. Flowers (July, August,) 
polygamous or perfect, in numerous umbels, and these forming large, compound 
panicles. 

(Spinosa, a Latin word meaning thorny, spiny.} 

A small tree with trunk branches and petioles furnished with spines. 
Often hardly more than a shrub, but in the south, and occasionally in 
favorable, situations in the north attaining the dimensions of 20 to 30 
ft. (6 to 9 m.) or more in height, and 12 in. (30 cm.) in diameter of 
trunk at base. Bark of an aromatic, bitterish and somewhat acrid taste. 
The tree from which the sections of this species were cut measured 27 
ft. (8.22 m.) in height and 30 in. (76.2 cm.) in girth of trunk at base. 
It grew on the grounds of Dr. Parker, of Ithaca, N. Y., and must be 
considered a very large tree of its kind for so northern a climate. 

HABITAT. Found native from Pennsylvania to Kentucky and south- 
ward, along river banks and in damp woods. Is grown in cultivation out- 
side of that range. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood light and brittle, seeming, when 
fresh, of an almost herbaceous or succulent nature, brownish-yellow of 
various tints. 

USES. An ornamental shade-tree, particularly interesting from its 
curious, very large, decompound leaves. The timber is of little or no 
value for manufacturing purposes. 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES of this species are "stimulant, diaphoretic, 
and an infusion of the recent bark is said to be emetic and cathartic. 



9. NYSSA MULTIFLORA TUPELO. 53 

It is used as a remedy in chronic rheumatism and cutaneous eruptions, 
and for relieving rheumatic pains a vinous or spirituous infusion of the 
berries is said to be remarkable. A similar tincture is employed with 
advantage sometimes in cases of violent colic, and the pungency of this 
tincture has been found useful in relieving toothache; hence the name, 
in some localities, Toothache-Tree." * 

ORDER CORNACEJE: DOGWOOD FAMILY. 

Leaves opposite (except in one species), simple, mostly entire. Flowers in cymes, 
often involucrate, polypetalous (exceptionally apetalous), 4-numerous; calyx-tube 
adherent to the ovary, its limb minute; petals valvate in the bud, oblong, sessile, 
and, with the stamens, borne on an epigynous disk in the perfect flowers; ovary 
1-celled, bearing a single suspended ovule; style single, somewhat club-shaped. 
Fruit a 1-2-seeded baccate drupe, bearing the persistent limb of the calyx. 

Trees, shrubs or rarely herbs, with bitter, tonic bark. 

GENUS NYSSA, L. 

Leaves mostly entire, but sometimes angulate-toothed, and mostly at the ends of 
the branchlets. Flowers greenish and appearing with the leaves, dioscious or 
polygamous, clustered or rarely solitary on axillary peduncles. Staminate flowers 
more numerous, and in these the calyx-tube is small, limb truncate or 5-parted; 
petals usually 5, small, oblong and soon deciduous or wanting; stamens 5-12, com- 
monly 10, inserted outside of a convex glandular disk, filaments slender; anthers 
short; ovary none. Pistillate flowers much larger than the staminate; calyx-tube 
oblong, adherent to the ovary, limb a mere rim as with staminate flowers; petals 
2-5, as in staminate flowers, or wanting; ovary 1-celled, style large, revolute, stig- 
matic down one side. Fruit an ovoid or oblong, one-seeded drupe, with a striated 
stone. 



9. NYSSA MULTIFLORA, WANG. 

TUPELO, PEPPERIDGE, BLACK YELLOW on SOUR GUM, GUM-TKEE. 
Ger., Saner Gummibaum; Fr., Gommier muUiflore; Sp., Tupelo. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS: Leaves 2-5 in. (5-13 cm.) long, oval or obovate, usually 
acuminate, but sometimes obtuse, at each end, entire and of firm texture, glabrous 
or villous-pubescent when young, at least on the petiole midrib and margins, shining 
above when old, changing early in autumn to a bright crimson. Fertile flowers 
(April, June) 2-8, clustered at the end of a slender peduncle; style revolute. Fruit 
(September) an ovoid, bluish-black drupe (from two to four only of a flower cluster, 
usually maturing), about 6 lines in length, with a scanty flesh of acid taste and a 
large stone longitudinally striated. 

(The specific name, multiflora, is the Latin for " many-floicered.") 

A tree of very variable aspect and medium-size,, though it is said to 
sometimes attain, in southern United States, the height of 120 ft. 
(36.5 m.) and 4 ft. (1/22 m.) in thickness of trunk at base. It is usually 
copiously supplied with branches, which grow out horizontally, giving 
the tree a handsome and peculiar appearance. 

* U. 8. Dispensatory 15th ed.. pp. 1575-6. 



54 HOUGH'S AMERICAN WOODS. 

HABITAT. Eastern United States, though sparingly in the north 
and there not attaining its full size, growing in rather damp soil, and in 
the south iu swamps and marshes. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood rather heavy, soft, very strong and 
tough owing to the interlacing of its fibers, which makes it very unwedg- 
able; sap-wood light yellow with a slightly brownish tint; heart-wood 
light brown. Specific Gravity, 0.6356; Percentage of Ash, 0.52; Relative 
Approximate Fuel Value, 0.6323; Coefficient of Elasticity, 81932; Modu- 
lus of Rupture, 830; Resistance to Longitudinal Pressure, 468; Resist- 
ance to Indentation, 196; Weight of a Cubic Foot in Pounds, 39.61. 

USES. Owing to the great difficulty in splitting and working this 
timber, it is useful for but comparatively few purposes, and those such 
as require that quality. It is used in the manufacture of hubs for 
wagon wheels, rollers, ox-yokes, hatters' blocks, sometimes for bowls 
and other similar wooden-ware, etc. It is useful, too, for pump-logs, 
aqueduct pipes, etc., being so tough that it requires no hoops. It is said 
to be extensively used for that purpose at the Syracuse salt works. 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. None are ascribed to this species. 

ORDER OLEACE.ZE: OLIVE FAMILY. 

Leaves opposite and single or pinnately compound. Flowers monopetalous (rarely 
apetalous or polypetalous); calyx 4-cleft, toothed or entire, or sometimes wanting; 
corolla regular, 4-cleft (or sometimes 4-petalous, or even wanting altogether); sta- 
mens only 2 (or rarely 4); ovary 2-cetled with usually 2 suspended ovules in each 
cell. Fruit fleshy or capsular, containing 4 (or fewer) seeds. 

Represented by trees and shrubs. 

GENUS FRAXINUS, TOURN. 

Leaves petiolcd, oddly-pinnate, with 3-15 toothed or entire leaflets. Flowers small, 
racemed or panicled, from the axils of the last year's leaves, the American repre^ 
sentatives dioscious and apetalous; calyx and corolla, when present, as described for 
the order; anthers large, linear or oblong; style single, stigma 2-cleft. Frit it a 
1-2-celled, flattened samara, winged at the apex, 1-2 pendulous seeds in each cell. 

(The ancient Latin name of the Ash; supposed to be from the Greek cppa.,i<s, a 
separation, alluding to the facility with which the wood splits.) 



10. FRAXINUS AMERICANA, L. 

WHITE ASH. 

Ger., Amerikanische Esche; Fr., Frene Americain; Sp., Fresno 

Americano. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS: Leaves pinnately compound with 7-9 leaflets, which are 
petiolate, ovate or lance-oblong, pointed, entire or obscurely toothed, pale shining 
above, smooth or pubescent beneath; petioles glabrous; branch lets smooth, gray, 
and buds rust-colored, somewhat velvety. Flowers (April, May) in loose, axillary, 
compound panicles, dioecious, apetalous, calyx minute and persistent. Frvit (August, 
September) a samara, terete and marginless at the base, extending above into a 
lanceolate, oblauceolate, or wedge linear, often slightly emarginate wing. 



11. ULMUS FULVA SLIPPERY ELM. 55 

A tree of good size, though not often over 100 ft. (30 m.) in height, 
with a, trunk 3 ft. (0.91 m.) in diameter. 

HABITAT. Canada and United States generally, east of the Missis- 
sippi river and south nearly or quite to the gulf coast. It is said to 
reach its greatest development in the Ohio river basin. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood rather heavy, very strong and springy, 
hard, compact; sap-wood, when well seasoned, nearly white; heart-wood 
of a light reddish color, usually more or less mottled. Specific Gravity, 
0.6543; Percentage of Ash, 0.42; Relative Approximate Fuel Value, 
0.6516; Coefficient of Elasticity, 101668; Modulus of Rupture, 861; 
Resistance to Longitudinal Pressure, 463; Resistance to Indentation, 
171; Weight of a Cubic Foot in Pounds, 40.78. 

USES. A very useful timber in the manufacture of wheels, axles, 
shafts, and frames for wagons, carriages and cutters, for agricultural 
implements, oars, sweeps, etc., where great strength and stiffness or 
springiness are required . 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. It is noted by Mr. Geo. B. Emerson* that 
"an Ash leaf rubbed upon the swellings caused by mosquito bites and bee 
stings will remove the itching and soreness immediately, and it is 
reported by some that the leaf will also give relief in cases of snake bite. 
A decoction of the leaves is said to be an antidote to the poison of lamb- 
kill (Kalmia angustifolio), when taken by lambs." 

ORDER ULMACE^E:f ELM FAMILY. 

Leaves simple, alternate; stipules caducous. Flowers perfect or polygamous by 
abortion, apetalous, in loose clusters, not catkins; calyx somewhat bell-shaped, free 
from the ovary; stamens springing from the calyx, usually as many as its lobes and 
opposite them; filaments straight, ovary 1-2-celled with a single suspended ovule in 
each cell; styles or stigmas two. Fruit, a samara or drupe with suspended seed; 
no albumen. 

Represented by trees, rarely shrubs. 

GENUS ULMUS, L. 

Leaves short-petioled, usually rather rough, markedly straight-veined, unequally 
or obliquely heart-shaped or abrupt at the base; stipules small, caducous. Flowers 
appearing before the leaves in our species, purplish or yellowish, apetalous, polyga- 
mous, in lateral clusters or racemes; calyx 4-9-cleft; stamens 4-9, with long, slender 
filaments; ovary 2-celled, or rarely 1-celled, compressed; styles 2, short and diverg- 
ing. Fruit a samara with a broad, membranous margin, 1-celled by obliteration, 
an,d 1-seeded; seed with no albumen, large cotyledons and straight embryo. 

(Ulmus is the ancient Latin name of the Elm.) 

ii. ULMUS FULVA, MICHX. 

SLIPPERY ELM, RED ELM, MOOSE ELM. 

Ger., Rothe Ulme; Fr., Orme gras; Sp., Olmo Colorado. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS: Leaves ovate-oblong, taper-pointed, unequally cordate at 
the base, rather irregularly doubly-serrate, very rough above and slightly rough 

Trees and Shrub- of Massachusetts, 2d ed.. 



* Trees ana shrub, of Massachusetts, 2d ed.. pp. ai'j-aau. 

t Ranked by some authors as a sub-order of the order Urticacece. 



50 lluL'<;iiV AMKRICAN WUODS. 

or soft downy beneath, large, 4-8 in. long, and rugose., fragrant \vlnlf drying; 
lrat'-l>ud> large and. before expanding, roverrrl with a soft, rust-colored down; 
branchlets downy. Fdnrtrx uMarch, April) nearly sessile; calyx downy, of 7-9 
lobes; stamens 7-J), short, reddish. Fruit (.May, June) nearly orbicular, about 8 lines 
(1.9 cm.) wide, slightly if at all ciliatc and with pubescent cell. 

(The specific. 1 name, f>tlc<i, is a Latin word meaning reddish-yellow, fulvous.) 

A tret 1 <>t' medium size, rarely of greater height that ?0 ft. (2\ m.) or 
of greater thickness of trunk than 2 ft. (0.01 in.), and with very muci- 
laginous inner bark. 

HAUITAT. Southern Canada and north-eastern United Stales, west- 
ward as far as Dakota, and southward nearly or quite to the Gulf States 
growing particularly in rich and rather low grounds. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood heavy, strong, compact and tough; 
heart-wood very largo, of brownish-red color; sap-wood thin and whitish. 
S/nrtfic Gravity, 0.0050; Percentage of A $li, 0.83; Rch/tiw Approximate 
Fuel Value, 0.0808; Coefficient of Elasticity, 95^74; Modulus of Rupture, 
809; Resistance to Longitudinal Prex*un\ 530; Remittance to Indenta- 
tion, 150; Wei <j lit of a Cubic Foot in Pound*, 43.35. 

USES. This timber makes excellent fence rails. It is used extensively 
in some localities in the manufacture of the running-gear of wagons, for 
sleigh-runners etc. Its toughness and great ilexibility when boiled or 
>st earned makes it one of the very best of timbers for the ribs of canoes 
and skiifs. 

A great item of value in this tree lies in its inner bark, which bears a 
copious mucilage. Aside from its important uses in medicine it is put 
occasionally to other uses as the following: It is in a measure nutritious, 
and has been known to .support life in cases of scarcity of rood. We are 
told by Mr. Cl. B. Hmerson,* that during the War of 1812, the troops 
;ilong the Canadian frontier used it as food for their horses when forage 
was scarce. It is reported on the, authority of Dr. C. W. Wright.! of 
Cincinnati, that "Slippery-Elm bark has the property of preserving fatty 
substances from rancidit v, a fact derived originally from the Indians, 
who prepared bears' fat by melting it with the bark, in the proportion of 
a drachm of the latter to a pound of the former, keeping them heated 
together for a few minutes, and then straining olf the fat." Or. Wright 
tried tin- same process with butter and lard, and found them to remain 
perfect Iv sweet for a long time. 

MEDICINAL PROI-ERTI ES. The inner bark is used extensively as a. 
demulcent drink in the form of an infusion, especially recommended in 
dvspepsia. diarrlnea and diseases of the urinary passages. It lias also 
been employed in cases of cutaneous eruptions, and cases are reported of 
the riddance of tapeworms by chewing and swallowing the bark of this 



12. CELTIS OCCIDENTALS SUGARBERRY. 57 

elm. As an emollient in the form of poultices etc., for inflammations it 
is also largely used, being prepared by simply treating the dried bark, 
either powdered or in a crude state, with hot water so as to be easily 
formed into a poultice.* 

GENUS CELTIS, TOUBN. 

Leaves pointed, somewhat oblique at the base. Flowers appearing with the leaves, 
greenish, axillary, monoeciously polygamous; the staminate flowers in little fascicles 
or racemes; calyx 6-parted, stamens 6; the fertile flowers solitary or in pairs, peduncu- 
late, calyx 5-parted, stamens 5, ovary 1-celled, styles 2, stigmas awl-shaped, elongated, 
recurved. Fruit a globular drupe, 1-seeded; seed containing a little gelatinous 
albumen, embryo curved, cotyledons crumpled. 

(Celtis is the ancient Greek "name of the Lotus.) 

12. CELTIS OCCIDENTALIS, L. 

SUGARBERRY, HACKEE KRY, NETTLE-TREE, FALSE ELM. 

Ger., Abendldndischer Ziiryelbaum; Fr., Mioocoulier occidentale; Sp., 

Almez Americano. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS: Leaves quite various in the different varieties but usually 
ovate, markedly taper-pointed from a broad, usually somewhat heart-shaped or trun- 
cate unequal or oblique base, reticulated, sharply serrate except sometimes near the 
base, more or less rough above and pubescent at least when young beneath. 
Flowers (April, May) solitary, small, white, with peduncles once or twice as long as 
the leaf stem; sepals triangular-ovate, erect. Fruit a small, solitary, round, sweet, 
edible drupe, dark purple when fully mature. 

(Occidentalis, a Latin adjective meaning western.) 

A tree usually of medium size and very variable aspect; sometimes like 
that of the Elm with spreading top; then, as often in northern New 
York, broadly ovate in outline r with numerous slender but long hori- 
zontal branches. In most favorable conditions of soil and climate it 
attains the height of 100 ft. (30 m.) or more, with a trunk 5 ft. (1.52 m.) 
in diameter. As the opposite extreme, it is found, in variety pumila, as 
scarcely more than a shrub. Thus we see it is a very polymorphous 
species and considering all its varieties of extensive 

HABITAT. Southern Canada and the United States generally east of the 
Mississippi river, and said to attain its greatest development in the Mis- 
sissippi basin. One form with small, thick and prominently reticulate- 
veined leaves is found in south-western and western United States. The 
tree grows particularly along river flats, rarely, if ever, forming groves 
exclusive of other timber, or even of sufficient abundance to be generally 
known by casual observers. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood rather heavy, coarse-grained, not very 
hard or strong, compact, taking a good satiny polish, heart-wood 
usually brown, of various shades, often quite dark; sap-wood light and oi 

*U. 8. Dispensatory, 15th ed., pp. 1487-8. 
8 



58 HOUGH'S AMERICAN WOODS. 

a slightly yellowish or greenish tint. Specific Gravity, 0.7287; Percentage 
of Ash, 1.09; Relative Approximate Fuel Value, 0.7208; Coefficient of 
Elasticity, 68527; Modulus of Rupture, 789; Resistance to Longitudinal 
Pressure, 421; Resistance to Indentation. 217; Weight of a Cubic Foot in 
Pounds, 45.41. 

USES. Owing to the general scarcity of this tree, little can be said 
of its uses. It seems to be nowhere abundant enough to enter largely 
into any particular branch of manufacture. It is sometimes used by 
wheel- wrightg, etc., as a substitute for Elm, with which it is allied in 
physical properties as well as botanically. 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. So far as known, this species is of no 
medicinal value. 

NOTE. Such is the general scarcity of these trees that they are usually 
looked upon, by the people at large, as strangers wherever found, and 
sometimes they become trees of considerable note. 

One of this nature is found near the New York Central railroad, 
between Palatine Bridge and Spraker's, just north of the track and 
within the railroad enclosure. Ordinarily it would have been cut down 
when the road was laid, but the people residing in its vicinity petitioned 
the railroad authorities to let it remain. The request was granted, and 
the tree still stands, famous far and near in that section and to the rail- 
road employes as the "Unknown Tree," Before visiting this tree to 
ascertain its identity, my father predicted that I would find it a rep- 
resentative of this species, remarking that he had several times, in his 
travels here and there in this country, been shown to what the people 
called (i unknown trees/' and in every case had found them to be of this 
species. I found him right in his prediction regarding this tree. It 
proved to be a fine specimen of its kind, 10 ft. 8 in. (3.25 m.) in girth, 
two ft. (0.60 m.) from the ground. 

We know of two representatives of this species on the Black river 
bank, in northern New York, having variegated foliage. 

ORDER FLATANACE-ffi: PLANE-TREE FAMILY. 

Leaves simple, alternate, pal mately- veined and lobed, with sheathing scarious 
stipules. Flowers monoecious, destitute of both calyx and corolla, in separate and 
globular heads. Sterile flowers numerous; stamens intermixed with small, club- 
shaped scales; filaments very short; anthers 2-celled, linear. Fertile flowers: pistils 
intermixed with little scales; ovaries inversely pyramidal; style simple, awl-shaped, 
stigmatic on one side. Fruit a small, club-shaped, coriaceous nutlet, with bristly, 
tawny down at its base, and containing a single, pendulous, albuminous seed. 

Represented by trees. 

GENUS PLATANUS, L, 

Characters as given for the order, this being the only genus. 

(The name Platanus is from the Gk., nXarvt, broad, probably in reference to the 
leaves.) 



13. PLATANUS OCCIDEKTALIS SYCAMORE. 59 

13, PLATANUS OCCIDENTALIS, L. 

SYCAMORE, PLANE-TREE, BUTTONWOOD, BUTTON-BALL TREE. 

Ger., Amerikanische Platane; Fr., Platane Americain; Sp., Platano 

de America. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS: Leaves large, usually truncate at the base, angulate-lobed 
and commonly serrate-toothed, the lobes short and sharp-pointed; leaves and leaf- 
stems tomentbse when young; stipules conspicuous, obliquely ovate; base of the 
petiole concave, covering the axillary bud. Flowers appear usually in May; fertile 
heads solitary, suspended on a long peduncle, and, persisting long after the leaves 
have fallen, give the tree a characteristic appearance in winter. 

This is the largest (though not the tallest) deciduous tree of our 
American forests, sometimes attaining the enormous proportions of 
120 ft. (37 m.) in height, and 14 ft. (4.27 m.) or more in diameter of 
trunk at base. The older bark of the trunk and large branches flakes 
off in brittle, irregular scales, leaving the surface of a whitish or grayish 
and more or less mottled color, especially in winter. Farther up, the 
smaller branches are often remarkable for their smoothness and white- 
ness, seeming quite as though white- washed. "This striking feature 
in winter enables one to observe the course of a stream for a great dis- 
tance by the line of Sycamores along its banks."* The branches are 
greenish or brownish in color. 

HABITAT. Southern Canada, New England, and southward nearly 
to the gulf coast, and westward to Kansas and Nebraska, reaching, per- 
haps, its greatest development along the Ohio river and its tributaries. 
It is partial to the river banks and localities where the soil is moist, often 
growing in or very close to the rocky beds of small streams which dry 
up in the summer season. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood heavy, rather hard and compact, 
though not very strong, difficult to split and work; of a reddish-brown 
color with light and somewhat yellowish sap-wood. Specific Gravity, 
0.5678; Percentage of Ash, 0.46; Relative Approximate Fuel Value, 0.5652; 
Coefficient of Elasticity, 86402; Modulus of Rupture, 635; Resistance to 
Longitudinal Pressure, 450; Resistance to Indentation, 165; Weight of a 
Cubic Foot in Pounds, 35.39. 

USES. This timber, probably principally on account of the difficulty 
of working it, is not of extensive use in manufacturing. It makes good 
fuel when dry, and is used to some considerable extent in the manufac- 
ture of fruit baskets, tobacco boxes, etc., and to some extent for cabinet- 
ware. When cut with the "quarter" grain (in radial section), pieces of 
this timber give a very pretty effect in wooden mosaics and cabinet work. 

* Elements of Forestry, by Franklin B. Hough, p. 252. 



60 HOUGH'S AMERICAN WOODS. 

For butchers' blocks, etc., where a timber is needed that will not split, 
it is admirable. When sawn into lumber it is said to warp badly. 

A by no means unimportant use of this tree is its value as a shade-tree 
along public walks, etc., as it seems to endure the smoke and dust of 
cities better than most of our trees, is of rapid growth and casts a toler- 
ably dense shade. 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. So far as known, none are possessed by 
this species. 

NOTE. My father once saw, in the state of Michigan, a fine tree of 
this species, noted in the locality as the "Crane-Tree" from the fact that 
it was the home of a colony of Great Blue Herons (Ardea lierodias, L.) 
or " Cranes," as they are often wrongly called. In its top he counted 
some thirty of their nests. 

ORDER JUGLANDACE2E: WALNUT FAMILY. 

Leaves alternate, pinnate and without stipules. Flowers monoecious and apetalous, 
except in some cases in the fertile flowers. Sterile flowers in catkins with an irregu- 
lar calyx adnate to the scale of the catkin. Fertile flowers solitary or in small clus- 
ters, with calyx regularly 3-5-lobed, adherent to the incompletely 2-4-celled, but 1- 
ovuled ovary. Fruit a sort of dry drupe (a trynia), with a fibrous and more or less 
fleshy and coriaceous outer coat (shuck) very astringent to the taste, a hard, bony 
inner coat (shell), and a 2 4-lobed seed, which is orthotropous, with thick, oily and 
often corrugated cotyledons and no albumen. 

All representatives of the order are trees. 

GENUS JUGLANS, L. 

Leaves odd-pinnate, with numerous serrate leaflets; leaf -buds few-scaled or nearly 
naked. Sterile floicers in long, simple, imbricated, axillary catkins from the wood of 
the preceding year; calyx unequally 3-6-cleft; stamens 12-40 with very short and free 
filaments. Fertile flowers several in a cluster or solitary at the ends of the branches; 
calyx 4-toothed and bearing in its sinuses 4 small petals; styles 2, very short; stigmas 
2, somewhat club-shaped and fringed. Fruit drupaceous with a fibrous and spongy, 
somewhat fleshy, indehiscent epicarp (shuck), and a rough irregularly furrowed endo- 
carp (shell); embryo edible and wholesome. 

Trees with strong- scented resinous-aromatic bark and a pith which separates into 
thin transverse disks. (Juglans is contracted from Latin Jovisglans, the nut of Jove.) 



14. JUGLANS CINEREA, L. 

BuTTER^tJT, WHITE WALKUT, OIL-NUT. 
Ger., Aschc/rauer Wallnussbaum; Fr., Noyer cendr^j Sp., Nogal gris. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS: Leaflets (15-17), oblong-lanceolate, pointed, rounded some- 
what unequally at the base, pubescent especially beneath; petioles and branchlets 
clammy pubescent. Flowers (April, May) as described above, for order and genus. 
Fruit (Sept.) very clammy pubescent and of rather pleasant odor when fresh, 
oblong, pointed, 2-celled at base; the nut-shell deeply and irregularly furrowed 
leaving rough and ragged ridges; embryo very rich in oil and of delicious flavor. 

A tree not usually growing tall (except when forced to in the forests, 
and then not to a great height), but of very wide spread, the trunk 



14. JUGLANS CINEREA BUTTERNUT. 61 

branching low down and sending out long horizontal branches. It is 
occasionally 80 ft. (24 m.) in height, but usually considerably less, and 
with a trunk. 3 to 4 ft. (0.90 to 1.20 m.) in diameter. Its short and 
wide-spread habit is very characteristic when growing in the open fields. 

HABITAT. Southern Canada and north-eastern United States, west- 
ward to Minnesota and Iowa, and southward to Maryland or farther 
among the Alleganies. Grows in rich calcareous and not very moist soil. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood not strong, soft, compact, easily 
worked, taking a satiny and beautiful polish. Color light grayish-brown 
with white sap-wood, which is very thin in comparison with the colored 
heart. Specific Gravity, 0.4036; Percentage of Ash, 0.51; Relative 
Approximate Fuel Value, 0.4065; Coefficient of Elasticity, 81253; Modu- 
lus of Rupture, 597; Resistance to Longitudinal Pressure, 392; Resistance 
to Indentation, 90; Weight of a Cubic Foot in Pounds, 25.46. 

USES. This timber though not of as high price in market as the 
allied Black Walnut, is nevertheless of great value for interior finishing, 
as wainscotings etc. It is to some extent used in furniture, and occa- 
sionally for other purposes. 

Of quite as much value as the timber of this tree is its fruit, the nuts, 
which are gathered at about the time of the first frosts, and when 
properly dried are sweet and delicious. An expressed oil from these 
nuts is a drying oil very similar in properties to the linseed oil. The 
nuts gathered when young and succulent, at about the beginning of 
June, make excellent pickles, after removing the clammy pubescence by 
scalding and then rubbing with a coarse cloth. 

The bark and the nut shucks are sometimes used for dyeing purposes, 
and from them, according to Mr. Emerson, black, brown, purple and 
fawn-color have been produced. The sap of this tree is quite rich in 
sugar, but not equal in value to that of the Sugar Maple. 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. The inner bark, particularly of the root, is 
officinally recognized as of value in medicine as a safe cathartic, very 
mild in its action. It is said that it was extensively employed by the 
physicians connected with the army in the Revolutionary war. Dysen- 
tery is a complaint in which it is particularly indicated. It is given in 
the form of a decoction or extract, the latter being officinal and usually 
preferred. The leaves, which are acrid, have been used when powdered 
as a rubefacient and sometimes as a substitute for Spanish flies.* 

ORDER CUPULIFI3R.7E : OAK FAMILY. 

Learns alternate, simple, straight-veined; the stipules, forming the bud-scales, 
deciduous. Flowers monoecious, apetalous. Sterile flowers in clustered or racemed 
catkins (or in simple clusters in the Beech); calyx regular or scale-like; stamens 5-20. 

* U. S. Dispensatory, 15th ed., pp. 825-6. 



62 HOUGH'S AMERICAN WOODS. 

Fertile flowers solitary, clustered or spiked, and furnished with an involucre which 
forms a cup or covering to the nut; calyx-tube adherent to the ovary, its teeth min- 
ute and crowning the summit; ovary 2-7-celled with 1-2 pendulous ovules in each 
cell, but all of the cells and ovules, except one, disappearing before maturity; stig- 
mas sessile. Fruit a 1-celled, 1-seeded nut, solitary or several together, and partly 
or wholly covered by the scaly (in some cases echinate) involucral cup or covering; 
seed albumenless, with an auatropous, often edible, embryo; cotyledons thick and 
fleshy. 

Represented by both trees and shrubs. 

GENUS QUERCUS, L. 

Flowers greenish or yellowish. Sterile flowers in loose, slender, naked catkins, 
which spring singly or several together from axillary buds ; calyx 2-8 parted or 
cleft; stamens 3-12; anthers 2-celled. Fertile floicers with ovary nearly 3-celled and 
6-ovuled, 2 of the cells and 5 of the ovules being abortive; stigma 3-lobed; involu- 
cre developing into a hard, scaly cup around the base of the nut or acorn, which is 
1-celled, 1-seeded 

(The ancient Latin name for the Oak supposed to be from the Celtic quer, fine, and 
cuez, tree.) 

15. QUERCUS RUBRA, L. 

RED OAK. 
Ger., Rofhe Eiche; Fr., Cliene rouge; Sp., Roble rojo. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS: Leaves on long and slender petioles, abrupt or obtuse at 
the base, rather thin and smooth both sides when mature, oval or obovate in outline, 
moderately (rarely deeply) penatifid, with rounded sinuses and 7-9 narrow lobes 
these and the teeth being conspicuously bristle- pointed, turning dark red in autumn, 
whence the name ' ' Red Oak. " Flowers appear in May. Sterile with calyx 2-5-parted 
and 3-5 stamens. Fruit an acorn, requiring two years to reach maturity, and, there- 
fore, found when mature on old wood below the leaves of the season, oblong-ovoid 
or turgid-ovoid, large, sometimes an inch in length, with bitter kernel and the abor- 
tive ovules at the apex of the seed, one-third immersed in the shallow saucer- shaped 
cup, which is 8-12 lines in diameter, flat and broad with upturned edges, of fine 
firrnly-appressed and smoothish scales, sessile or on a very short narrow stalk very 
much shorter than the acorn. 

(The specific name, rubra, is the Latin for red.) 

One of the largest and most beautiful of our Oaks, " giving an idea 
of nobility and great strength/' and attaining the height of 80 ft. 
(24 m.) or more, with a trunk sometimes 6 or 7 ft. (2 m.) in diame- 
ter, and with a wide-spreading top. Its bark is smoother than with most 
of the oaks, and of a dark-gray color. It possesses an acrid, sour juice, 
which causes iron to corrode rapidly when in contact with it. 

HABITAT. A northern Oak; found generally throughout Canada 
and north-eastern United States, growing alike in rich and poor soils. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood heavy, hard, strong and coarse- 
grained, very liable to check in drying and of a light brownish or reddish 
color with lighter sap-wood . Specific Gravity, 0. 6540 ; Percentage of Ash, 
0.26; Relative Approximate Fuel Value, 0.6523; Coefficient of Elasticity, 
112798; Modulus of Rupture, 990; Resistance to Longitudinal Pressure, 
511; Resistance to Indentation, 177; Weight of a Cubic Foot in Pounds, 
40.76. 



16. FAGUS FERRUGINEA AMERICAN BEECH. 63 

USES. The timber of this species is of comparatively little economic 
value, excepting for fuel and in the manufacture of casks, tubs etc., 
and occasionally for interior finishing, chairs, etc. 

It is a beautiful shade-tree, and its acorns are eagerly sought after by 
cattle and other domestic animals. 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. So far as known, none are possessed by 
this species. 

GENUS FAGUS, TOURN. 

Leaves undivided, strongly straight-veined, plaited lengthwise in the slender 
pointed buds, and growing in a light slender spray. Flowers appearing with the 
leaves. Sterile flowers yellowish, from, the lower axils of the leaves of the season, 
in loose heads suspended by long slender peduncles and with deciduous, scale-like 
bracts; calyx 5-7-cleft, bell-shaped; stamens 5-16, with slender filaments and 2-celled 
anthers. Fertile flowers in pairs at the end of short peduncles, each pair invested with 
a4-lobed involucre composed of more or less united, linear, soft, prickly scales; calyx 
with usually six minute, awl-shaped lobes; ovary 3-celled with 2 ovules in each cell; 
styles 3, thread-like. Fruit a sharply 3-angled, 1 -seeded nut, enclosed, two together, 
within the involucral burr, which opens at maturity by 4 valves; embryo esculent 
and of very pleasant flavor; cotyledons thick. 

(Fagus is probably from Gk., tpayeiv, to eat, in allusion to the edible fruit.) 



16. FAGUS FERRUGINEA, AIT. 
AMERICAN BEECH. 

Ger., Amerikanisclie Buche; Fr., Hetre d' Amerique; Sp., Hay a 

Americana. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS: Leaves oblong ovate, about one-half as wide as long, with 
short petioles, taper-pointed, obtuse or slightly cordate at the base, toothed with 
remote teeth, furnished with silky white hairs when young, but at length nearly 
glabrous, remaining late on the tree, sometimes during a part of the winter; buds 
with brown imbricated scales; stipules long and slender, falling early. Flowers in 
May; the sterile cluster, with peduncle, about 2 in. long, pubescent. Fruit a small, 
ovoid, triangular nut, the prickles of its burr mostly recurved or spreading. 

(The specific name, ferruginea, is a Latin adjective meaning dusky, ferruginous.) 

A neat, handsome tree, always recognizable by its smooth, unbroken, 
bluish-gray bark. Occasionally a specimen is found 100 ft. (30 m.) or 
more in height, and its round, smooth trunk 4 ft. (1.22 m.) in diameter, 
but more commonly it is much smaller. 

HABITAT. Canada and north-eastern United States, westward as far 
as Wisconsin, and southward among the Alleganies to Georgia. Very 
common in the northern forests, growing in rocky and not very moist 
soil, and attaining, perhaps, its greatest development in Wisconsin, 
Michigan and in the forests generally about the Great Lakes. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood hard, tough, rather close-grained, 
strong, inclined to check in drying, taking a very smooth and beautiful 
polish; color reddish-brown of various shades; sap-wood nearly white, 
medullary rays large and conspicuous. Specific Gravity, 0.6883; Per- 



64 HOUGH'S AMERICAN WOODS. 

centage of Ash, 0.51; Relative Approximate Fuel Value, 0.6848; Coeffi- 
cient of Elasticity, 120996; Modulus of Rupture, 1148; Resistance to 
Longitudinal Pressure, 478; Resistance to Indentation, 196; Weight of a 
Cubic Foot in Pounds, 42.89. 

USES. This timber is used almost exclusively in the manufacture of 
plane-stocks. It is also used for shoe-lasts, and to considerable extent in 
the manufacture of chairs, table-legs, wooden-ware, tool-handles and 
turned-work generally. It is used, too, for ship-timbers to some extent. 
It makes very good fuel, leaving an ash that is rich in potassium. 

The nuts of this tree, known as " Beech mast/' are extensively eaten 
by squirrels, pigeons, grouse, etc., and the bear and deer find them dainty 
morsels. The deer of the Adirondacks, where this tree is abundant, 
grow fat in early summer on the young Beech "sprouts/' which they 
find springing up in abundance everywhere along the hill-sides. 

A fixed oil obtained from the nuts is similar in nature and properties to 
the Cottonseed Oil, and that of the European Beech (F. sylvatica) ranks 
next to the Olive Oil in value for table use. Doubtless the American 
product is as valuable when properly prepared. 

ORDER BETULACEJE. BIRCH FAMILY. 

Leaves simple, alternate, straight-veined and furnished with stipules which fall 
away early. Flowers mostly naked, monoecious, both kinds in catkins, 2 or 3 together 
under a 8-lobed bract or scale. Sterile flowers with distinct stamens and 2-celled 
anthers. Fertile flowers with two thread-like stigmas, and a 2-celled ovary, each cell 
containing 2 pendulous ovules, becoming by abortion in Fruit, a small, 1-celled, 
1-seeded nutlet, often with membranous wings; seed anatropous, alburueuless, with 
flattish, oblong cotyledons which become foliaceous in germination. 

Trees or shrubs, with bark which separates more or less easily into thin layers. 

GENUS BETULA, TOURN. 

Leaves ovate, serrate; these, with the twigs, especially the latter, spicy-aromatic. 
Flowers appearing in early spring with or before the leaves. Sterile flowers in long, 
drooping, cylindrical, both terminal and lateral, yellow catkins, appearing in summer 
and remaining dormant during the following winter to open and perform their function 
early the next season; bracts 3-lobed, shield-shaped, and beneath each are 2 bractlets 
and 3 flowers with calyx represented by a mere scale, which bears the 4 short stamens, 
each with a single-celled anther. Fertile flowers in cylindrical or oblong catkins 
with 3-lobed scales, and beneath each scale are 2-3 naked pistils without braclets or 
calyx. Fruit a small, broadly-winged, scale-like nutlet or samara. 

Trees and shrubs with outer bark horizontally fibrous and usually separable in 
sheets, that of the branchlets dotted, inner bark more or less aromatic and of pleas- 
ant flavor. 

17. BETULA LUTEA, MICHX. F. 

YELLOW BIRCH, GRAY BIRCH. 
Ger., Oelbe Birlce; Fr., Bouleau jaunc; Sp., Abedul amarillo. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS: Leaves thinnish, elliptical or ovate, somewhat tape- 
pointed, often narrowed toward the rounded or slightly heart-shaped base, straight- 



17. BETULA LUTEA YELLOW BIRCH. 65 

veined, sharply and rather coarsely doubly serrate, smooth when old; petioles short 
and downy. The leaves in autumn, after the action of frosts, turn to a pale-yellow 
color. Sterile catkins 2-4 in. long, pendulous. Fruiting catkins sessile, erect, 
oblong-ovoid, 1 in. or less in length and | to in. in thickness; scales of catkin 
nearly or quite - in. long, rather thin, and with 3 subequal, acute and slightly 
diverging lobes. 

(The specific name, lutea, is a Latin adjective meaning yellow, in allusion to the 
color of the bark.) 

A tree invested with a yellowish, pearly or silver-gray outer bark, 
which peels off horizontally in thin strips or layers, and hangs loosely 
and ribbon-like, or is coiled up in rolls, giving old trunks a very ragged 
appearance. The inner bark, especially of the twigs, is pleasantly 
aromatic, of flavor quite similar to that of the Wintergreen. In forests 
it attains and sometimes surpasses the dimensions of 80 ft. (24 m.) in 
height and 3 ft. (0.91 m.) in thickness of trunk. 

HABITAT. A Northern species, found throughout north-eastern 
United States, Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, westward lit- 
tle, if any, beyond the Great Lakes, and southward to North Carolina 
and Tennessee, but there only among the Alleganies. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood hard, close-grained, tough, heavy and 
very strong, compact, taking a beautiful satiny polish. Color light 
reddish -brown with nearly white sap-wood. Specific Gravity, 0.6553; 
Percentage of Ash, 0.31; Relative Approximate Fuel Value, 0.6533; 
Coefficient of Elasticity, 161723; Modulus of Rupture, 1248; Resistance 
to Longitudinal Pressure, 619; Resistance to Indentation, 161; Weight 
of a Cubic Foot in Pounds, 40.84. 

USES. This wood is very valuable as fuel, and is used extensively by 
wheel-wrights and cabinet-makers. The three-ply chair bottoms in com- 
mon use are made very largely of this timber. It is also valuable in the 
manufacture of the friction-pulleys, and the smallest wooden articles, 
such as clothes-pins, button and tassel molds, pill-boxes, etc. Young 
saplings, cut lengthwise through the center, make excellent and strong 
hoops for casks, etc. Burls, or " knots " as they are often called, are not 
uncommon on this timber, although not often cut into veneering, as are 
those of the Black Ash and some other timbers. They are highly prized 
for mallets, beetles, etc. The bark is used to some extent for tanning 
purposes, and the volatile oil, used for imparting the flavor of Birch to 
candies, soda-water, etc., is derived to some extent from this species, 
though mostly from the Sweet Birch (B. lento). 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. None are recorded of this species. 

ORDER SALICACEJE. WILLOW FAMILY. 

Leaves alternate, simple, undivided and furnished with stipules, which are either 
scale-like and deciduous, or leaf -like and persistent. Flotcers dioecious, both kinds 
in catkins, one under each bract or scale of the catkin, and destitute of both calyx 

9 



66 HOUGH'S AMERICAN WOODS. 

and corolla, or the former represented by a gland- like cup; ovary 1- to 2-celled; styles 
wanting, or 2 and short; stigmas often 2-lobed. Fruit a 1- or 2-celled, 2-valved pod 
with numerous seeds springing from 2 parietal or basal placentae and furnished with 
long, silky down; seeds ascending, anatropous, without albumen; cotyledons flat. 
Trees or shrubs of rapid growth, light wood and bitter baik. 

GENUS POPULUS, TOURN. 

Leaves broad, more or less heart-shaped or ovate, and petioles, which are long and 
often vertically compressed. Flowers appearing before the leaves in long, drooping, 
lateral, cylindrical catkins, the scales of which are furnished with a fringed margin; 
calyx represented by an oblique, cup-shaped disk with entire margin; stamens, 8-30 
or more, with distinct filaments; pistil with very short, bifid style, and large, 2-lobed 
stigma. Fruit as described for the order. 

Represented by rather large trees. (A Latin word, meaning the people, and appli- 
cable either from the fact that these trees are often set along public walks, or in 
allusion to the tremulous leaves which are in constant agitation like a crowd of 
people.) 



18. POPULUS GRANDIDENTATA, MICHX. 
LARGE-TOOTHED ASPEN OR POPLAR, WHITE-WOOD. 

Ger., Groszgezante Espe; Fr., Peuplier a grandes dents; Sp., Alano de 

diente grande. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS: Leaves roundish, ovate, with large and unequal sinnate 
teeth, densely covered with silky wool when young; smooth both sides when old; 
twigs terete (not angled as with some of the Poplars). Flowers (May) in catkins 3-4 
in. long, the sterile longer than the fertile, all the parts hairy, 'stamens about 12, 
catkin scales unequally 5-6-cleft, furnished with a slight, silky fringe. Fruit as 
described for the order. 

(The specific name, grandidentata , is from Latin, grandis, large, and dens, a tooth, 
in allusion to the coarsely- toothed leaves.) 

A medium-sized tree, rarely surpassing 75 ft. (23 m.) in height, or 
2 ft. (0.61 m.) in diameter of trunk. 

HABITAT. Almost identical in range with the Yellow Birch, being 
found in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Canada and the northern States, 
westward as far as Minnesota, and southward along the mountains to 
North Carolina and Tennessee. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood soft, close-grained, light, compact, 
satiny and taking a smooth finish. Very white, when properly seasoned, 
excepting the heart, which is of a light-brown color. Specific Gravity, 
0.4632; Percentage of Ash, 0.45; Relative Approximate Fuel Value, 
0.4611; Coefficient of Elasticity, 96327; Modulus of Rupture, 721; 
Resistance to Longitudinal Pressure, 358; Resistance to Indentation, 62; 
Weight of a Cubic Foot in Pounds, 28.87. 

USES. This tree seems hitherto not to have been ranked as high in 
the scale of economic value as it deserves, but the reason lies doubtlessly 
in the fact that it is never of very great size, and it seems to have been 
overlooked in the abundance of Pines, Tulips, Basswoods, etc., which 



18. POPULUS GRAHDIDENTATA ASPEK. 67 

this country affords. It is not liable to shrink, and would be valuable 
for inside finishing, for which use it is sometimes employed. It is used 
to considerable extent in turned-work and smaller wooden-ware generally. 
A clothes-pin manufacturer in northern New York tells us that he con- 
siders the Poplar as the best timber for his use. It enters largely into 
the manufacture of tooth-picks and excelsior, but its principal use might 
be said to be in the manufacture of wood-pulp for paper, and for this 
it is of highest value, being considered, perhaps, second to none in 
importance. 

" When, in the time of our grandmothers, fashion required that a lady 
should seem somewhat taller than nature made her, the light wood of 
this poplar was in demand as best adapted for the substance of the high 
heels of their shoes, and the manufacture constituted a distinct trade. 
The more substantial heels of the shoes of the lower people were made 
of more durable and heavier maple. The wood was also extensively 
used in the manufacture of hats before the palm-leaf was introduced/' * 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. None are recorded for this species. 

GYMNOSPERM^E. 

Flowering, exogenous plants with leaves chiefly parallel-veined and 
cotyledons frequently more than two. Flowers diclinous and very 
incomplete; pistil represented by an open scale or leaf, or altogether 
wanting, with ovules naked, fertilized by direct cdntact with the pollen, 
and seeds at maturity naked without a true pericarp. 

ORDER CONIFER JE: PINE FAMILY. 

Leaves mostly awl-shaped or needle-shaped, evergreen, entire and parallel -veined. 
Flowers monoecious, or rarely dioecious, in catkins or cones, destitute of both calyx 
and corolla; stamens one or several (usually united); ovary, style and stigma want- 
ing; ovules one or several at the base of a scale, which serves as a carpel, or on an 
open disk. Fruit a cone, woody and with distinct scales, or somewhat berry-like, and 
with fleshy coherent scales; seeds orthotropous, embryo in the axis of the albumen. 

Trees or shrubs with a resinous juice. 

GENUS PINUS, TOURN. 

Leaves evergreen, needle-shaped, from slender buds, in clusters of 2-5 together, 
each clucter invested at its base with a sheath of thin, membranous scales. Flowers 
appearing in spring, monoecious. Sterile flowers in catkins, clustered at the base of 
the shoots of the season; stamens numerous with very short filaments and a scale-like 
connective; anther cells, 2, opening lengthwise; pollen grains triple. Fertile flowers 
in conical or cylindrical spikes cones consisting of imbricated, carpellary scales, 
each in the axil of a persistent bract and bearing at its base within a pair of inverted 
ovules. Fruit maturing in the autumn of the second year, a cone formed of the 
imbricated carpellary scales, which are woody, often thickened or awned at the apex, 
persistent, when ripe dry and spreading to liberate the two nut-like winged seeds; 
cotyledons 3-12, linear. * 

(Pinus is a Latin word from Celtic pin or pen, a crag.) 

* The Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts, by Geo. B. Emerson, 2d ed., p. 279. 



68 HOUGH'S AMERICAN WOODS. 

19. PINUS RESINOSA, AIT. 

RED PINE, " NORWAY " PINE. 
Ger., Harzige Fi elite; Fr., Pin rouge; Sp., Pino rizado. 

SPECIFIC CHAKACTERS: Leaves 5-8 in. (13-20 cm.) long, dark-green, arranged in 
pairs, with a close sheath 6-12 lines (1-3 cm.) in length, enveloping the base of each 
pair. Fruit an ovoid-conical, terminal cone, with rounded base, about 2 in. (5 cm.) 
or more in length, and with slightly thickened, awnless scales, falling after shedding 
the seeds which are slightly ridged beneath; cotyledons 6-7. 

(The specific name, resinosa, is the Latin for resinous.) 

A tree of handsome,, vigorous aspect, commonly attaining the height 
of 80 ft. (24 m.) or more, with a straight, uniform trunk 2 ft. (.61 m.) 
in diameter and covered with reddish bark, which constantly flakes off, 
when old, in rather small, irregular scales. 

HABITAT. Northern United States and Canada, southward as far as 
into Pennsylvania, and said to reach its greatest development in Michi- 
gan, Wisconsin and Minnesota, growing in dry, sandy loam, particularly 
along ridges. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood light, not very strong, elastic, resin- 
ous and durable, harder than the White Pine, with yellowish-white sap- 
wood, slightly reddish heart and very conspicuous grain. Specific 
Gravity, 0.4854; Percentage of Ash, 0.27; Relative Approximate Fuel 
Value, 0.4841; Coefficient of Elasticity, 113216; Modulus of Rupture, 
800; Resistance to Longitudinal Pressure, 455; Resistance to Indenta- 
tion, 85; Weight of a Cubic Foot in Pounds, 30.25. 

USES. The principal value of this timber is in its usefulness for flooring, 
wainscoting, etc., for which its hardness renders it excellent. It is also 
used in localities for pump-logs, piles, ship-building, etc. Notwithstanding 
the inference one might draw from the specific name, resinosa, resinous, 
very little, if any, of the resin or turpentine of commerce comes from 
this tree. 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. None are ascribed to this species. 

GENUS ABIES, TOUKN. 

Leaves evergreen, solitary, scattered (not clustered nor sheathed at the base), short, 
all of one kind and foliaceous. Flowers appear in spring. Sterile flowers in catkins, 
scattered, or somewhat clustered in the axils of the leaves of the preceding year. 
Fertile flowers in catkins or cones, which are lateral or terminal on the shoots of the 
preceding year. Fruit a cone, maturing in the autumn of the first year, otherwise 
quite as described for Genus Pinus, excepting the scales are thin and flat (neither 
thickened nor furnished with a spur at the apex); seed with a persistent wing; coty- 
ledons 3-9. 

(Abies is an ancient Latin name of the Fir-tree.) 



20. ABIES NIGRA BLACK SPRUCE. 69 

20. ABIES NIGRA, Pom. 

BLACK SPRUCE, DOUBLE SPRUCE, RED SPRUCE. 

Ger., Schwartztanne; Fr., Epinette noire; Sp., Abeto negro. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS: Leaves short, needle-shaped, about 6 lines (1.27 cm.) or 
slightly more in length, 4-sided, and scattered thickly over the branches, pointing 
every way. Sterile flowers appear in May, having anthers tipped with a rounded, 
recurved appendage, and cells distinct, opening lengthwise. Fruit an ovoid or 
ovoid-oblong cone, 1-lf in. (2.5-4.5 cm.) in length, usually recurved, persistent, with 
inconspicuous bracts and elliptical-obovate scales, which are rigid and persistent on 
the axis, with thin scales, usually eroded or ragged tip. 

(The specific name, nigra, is the Latin for black.) 

A tree commonly attaining the height of 80 ft. (24 in.), with a straight, 
columnar trunk of 2 ft. (0.61 m.) or more in diameter, covered with a 
rather smooth, bluish-brown bark, which flakes off when old in small 
scales. The top often develops in a pyramidal form, with branches 
falling below a horizontal line growth. 

HABITAT. Northern United States, Canada and northward, forming 
in some localities large tracts of forest. It occurs southward as far as 
Pennsylvania, and sparingly among the mountains to North Carolina. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood light, soft, elastic, strong, compact 
and satiny, often of slightly reddish tint, and with lighter, nearly white, 
sap-wood. Specific Gravity, 0.4584; Percentage of Ash, 0.27; Relative 
Approximate Fuel Value, 0.4572; Coefficient of Elasticity, 109987; Modu- 
lus of Rupture, 747; Resistance to Longitudinal Pressure, 407; Resist- 
ance to Indentation, 77; Weight of a Cubic Foot in Pounds, 28.57. 

USES. This timber is of great value in the manufacture of lumber 
for many uses, especially for flooring, coping, general house-building, 
ship-building etc. It is used largely for piles and for the spars of ves- 
sels it is considered invaluable. One very important use is in the manu- 
facture of sounding-boards for pianos, violins and other stringed instru- 
ments, for which use the "quarter" grain lumber, i. e., lumber cut on 
radial section, is always used. It is said by instrument makers that few 
if any timbers equal the Spruce in value for this use. It is one of the 
best of timbers on account of its combined lightness and stiffness for 
canoe paddles, oars for shells, etc. 

A resinous exudation from this tree is valued as a chewing-gum, and 
meets with such ready sale that the gathering of it is quite an industry, 
at least in the vicinity of our home in northern New York, from which 
section hundreds of pounds are gathered annually and shipped to market. 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. An essence of Spruce is made by boiling 
the young branches of this tree in water and evaporating the decoction. 
It is used in the manufacture of spruce beer, which is a pleasant and 



;o Hoi -uifr-, AMKKICAN WOODS. 

wholesome beverage, especially in summer, and it is sometimes useful on 
long sea- voyages as a preventive of scurvy,* 



21. ABIES CANADENSIS, MICHX. 

HEMLOCK, II KM LOCK FIR. 
Ger., Scliierling-Tannc; Fr., Feruclie; Sp., Abcto Canadense. 

SPECIFIC C'liAK.u TEKS: Isucc.* linear, short, flat, in. (I cm. ), or slightly more 
in length, flat, obtuse, obscurely denticulate, whitened beneath, short-petioled and 
diverging in opposite, directions from the sides of the branchlet. Flvirers appear in 
May. >y< / -i!( flowers in small globose catkins each of a few capitate anthers whose 
short, confluent cells open transversely; pollen grains simple. Fruit small ovoid 
cones, scarcely longer than the leaves, 'pendent from the tips of the branches of the 
preceding year, persistent, \\iih inconspicuous bracts, and of fe\v, thin, rounded, 
entire scales, which are persistent on the axis. 

A handsome tree, sometimes attaining the dimensions of 100 ft. (30 
in.) in height with a trunk 3 ft. (0.01 m.) in diameter, quite straight 
and covered with firm., ridged bark. The sprays of young vigorous trees 
are peculiarly light and graceful in appearance, of dark green color above 
and showing in pretty contrast the whitish under surfaces, when turned 
up by the winds. The beauty is enhanced in early summer bv each 
branchlet being tipped with the delicate light -green new shoots of the 
season. 

HABITAT. North-eastern Tinted States generally, Canada, New 
Brunswick and Nova. Scotia, southward to North Carolina and Tennessee 
among the mountains and, according to Dr. Mohr, into Alabama. A 
very abundant tree in many of (lie forests of the north-east. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood light, rather soft and brittle, coarse- 
grained and not very easily worked, of a light, somewhat, reddish or 
brownish color, with lighter sap-wood and conspicuous grain. Specific 
G rarity, O.x!430: Percentage of A$h, 0.46; Relative Approximate Fuel 
Value, 0.4^<; Coefficient of Elasticity, 80070; Modulus of Rupture, 730; 
Re*i4(tnw lo Longitudinal Presfuuv, 384; /ifts-ittance to Indentation, 82; 
Wfifjht of a Cubic Foot in I*ouiulx, 20.4'v. 

I'SES. This timber is extensively cmnloved throughout its rano-e for 

*- i o o 

joists, rafters, planks and siding for building purposes, fences, plank- 
walks etc., for which use it is invaluable. Lath are extensively made of 
this timber, and many trees of small size are felled for railroad ties. 

Perhaps the principal point of value of this tree lies in its bark, which 
is verv rich in tannin, and in the north it, is by far the chief source of 
that product for tanning leather. 



22. ABIES BALSAMEA BALSAM. 71 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. A resinous exudation of this tree, known 
in Pharmacopoeia as Fix Canadensis, Hemlock Pitch or Canada Pitch, 
is a gentle rubefacient very similar to the Burgundy Pitch, and, like 
that, is used in the preparation of stimulating plasters for application in 
cases of chronic rheumatic pains, chronic affections of the chest, etc.* 
This Hemlock must not be confounded with an herb of the same name 
the Poison Hemlock (Conium maculatum) whose medicinal proper- 
ties are entirely different. 



22. ABIES BALSAMEA, MARSHALL. 

BALSAM, BALSAM FIR, BALM-OF-GILEAD FIR. 

Ger., Balsam- Tanne; Fr., Sap-in baumier; Sp., Abeto balsamico. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS: Leaves linear, flat, obtuse, 9 lines (1.90 cm.) or slightly 
more in length, emarginate or entire, bright-green above, the mid-rib prominent 
along the glaucous-silvery under surface, nearly sessile, spirally arranged, but at 
once diverging to either side, making a flat spray. Flowers -in May or June. Sterile 
flowers with anthers tipped with a 1-2-pointed appendage, and the cells opening by 
laceration; pollen quite as in the Pine. Fruit, cones, which are erect, cylindrical, 
large 2-4 in. (5-10 cm.) long, violet-colored, with slightly projecting, obovate 
serulate, mucronate bracts; these, with the broad, compact scales, deciduous from 
the persistent axis at maturity. 

(The specific name, balsamea, is the Latin for balsamic.) 

A tree rarely more than 80 ft. (24 m. ) in height, or with a trunk more 
than 2 ft. (.61 m.) in diameter, and even these dimensions are reached 
only under most favorable circumstances. It is covered with a smooth 
bark raised, everywhere about the trunk, in blisters, which hold each 
from a drop or two to nearly a half teaspoon of a thick, transparent, 
viscid fluid, which is the Canada Balsam or Balm of Fir of commerce. 
The branches grow out usually in whorls of about five each, with great 
regularity, and, diminishing in length from below upwards, develop into 
a perfectly pyramidal top with a symmetry and compactness that is very 
striking, and giving to " Balsam swamps ". a characteristic aspect. 

HABITAT. North-eastern United States and Canada, southward to 
Virginia, westward beyond the Mississippi, and far northward, growing 
in swamps and cold, damp woods. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood very soft, light, not strong nor durable, 
coarse-grained, remarkably easily split and very satiny, whitish with 
slightly reddish tin* to heart and very distinct grain. Specific Gravity, 
0.3819; Percentage of Ash, 0.45; Relative Approximate Fuel Value, 
0.3802; Coefficient of Elasticity, 81924; Modulus of Rupture, 515 ; 
Resistance to Longitudinal Pressure, 365; Resistance to Indentation, 
75; Weight of a Cubic Foot in Pounds, 23.80. 

*U. 8. Dispensatory, 15th ed., pp. 1123-4 



72 HOUGH'S AMERICAN WOODS. 

USES. Lumber is manufactured from this tree to but very slight 
extent and is little used. Its handsome form and vigorous growth 
makes it useful, especially while young, as an ornamental shade-tree and 
in the formation of wind-breaks. 

The boughs of this tree are sought by the Adirondack sojourner for 
the construction of his bed, as they are more springy and suitable than 
any thing else at hand and delightful beds they do make. The 
fragrance with which they fill the camp is delicious, and in that alone he 
feels largely repaid for the labor his trip has cost him. A pillow made 
from these boughs is oftentimes carried home to serve, by its perfume, as a 
reminder during the coming winter of the happy associations of his 
camp-life and especially of the balsam-bed. 

GENUS LARIX, TOURN. 

Leaves needle-shaped, soft, deciduous, in clusters of many each, from lateral scaly 
buds excepting along the shoots of the season, where they are scattered. Sterile flowers 
terminating lateral scaly buds or spurs on shoots of preceding year, with 2-celled 
anthers opening longitudinally; pollen grains, simple and globular. Fertile flowers 
in catkins cones red while in flower, consisting of several or many carpellary 
scales springing from the axils of bracts, and bearing each 2 ovules with orifices 
turned downward. Fruit an erect, oval or roundish cone, with colored persistent 
scales, and maturing the season of blossoming. 

(Larix is the Latin classical name of the Larch.) 

23. LARIX AMERICANA, MICHX. 

TAMARACK, AMERICAN OR BLACK LARCH, HACKMATACK. 

Ger., Amerikanische Larclie; Fr., Meleze Americain; Sp., Larice 

Americana. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS: Leaves filiform, short about 1 in. (2.54 cm.) in length 
and very slender. Cones deep purple, ovoid, in. (1.90 cm.) or less in length, with 
scales few, rounded, thin and inflexed on the margin. 

A beautiful tree, not often exceeding 80 ft. (24 m.) in height, of pecu- 
liar aspect, with slender tapering and very straight trunk, rarely over 2-J 
ft. (0.76 m.) in thickness of base, horizontal symmetrical branches and 
thin lightish green foliage, which in autumn turns to a soft yellow color. 
The bark is of a bluish gray color, and like that of the Spruce flakes off 
when old in small roundish scales. 

HABITAT. North-eastern United States, north of Pennsylvania and 
northward nearly or quite to the Arctic Regions, probably reaching its 
greatest development in Canada, where it grows on moist uplands. In 
the United States it is confined mostly to cold swamps interspersed 
usually with the Balsam. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. Wood heavy, strong, hard, compact and 
durable, of light brown color with lighter sap-wood and conspicuous 
bold grain. Specific Gravity, 0.2636; Percentage of Ash, 0.33; Relative 



23. LARIX AMERICANA TAMARACK. 73 

Approximate Fuel Value, 0.6215; Coefficient of Elasticity, 126126; Modu- 
lus of Rupture, 901; Resistance to Longitudinal Pressure, 536; Resist- 
ance to Indentation, 112; Weight of a Cubic Foot in Pounds, 38.86. 

USES. A favorite wood in ship-building especially when gotten out 
as "natural crooks" for knees and similar timbers, for which its durability 
and toughness render it very valuable. It makes excellent fence-posts, 
telegraph-poles etc., and is one of the very best of our timbers for rail- 
way ties. So much is it in demand for those purposes that we do not 
often see it sawn into lumber. 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. The inner bark of the European Larch 
possesses astringent and slightly stimulant properties, and is supposed to 
have a special tendency to the mucous membranes. It has been found 
efficacious in the treatment of bronchitis, haemoptysis and of catarrhal 
affections generally of the pulmonary and urinary passages.* Doubtless 
the American species, which is closely allied to the European, would be 
found to possess the same medicinal properties. 

NOTE. A "Tamarack Swamp," as occasionally seen in the Adiron- 
dack region, presents a very singular appearance. They are often found 
bordering ponds and beaver-meadows, and in such tracts Tamarack is 
often the only timber found. Then the absence of underbrush, the deli- 
cate light-green foliage, the rather pyramidal-shaped tops and straight 
trunks form striking features. But especially is one impressed with the 
way in which the branches grow out only above" a certain level, a little 
higher than one's head, and that level is as accurately defined in every 
tree as though it were a high- water mark. 

Another impressive feature is the soft yielding carpet of sphagnum 
moss which covers the ground, and into which one sinks ankle-deep as he 
walks. He can scarcely hear the sound of his own foot-steps, and the 
oppressive silence is only broken by the sighing of the wind through the 
tree- tops, or perhaps by the sweet song of the White-throated Sparrow, 
which is common in those localities. Such a swamp once visited is long 
remembered. 

GENUS THUJA, TOUKN. 

Leaves evergreen, small and scale-like, closely imbricated and appressed, so as to 
make flat two-edged branchlets. Flowers (May, June) monoecious, in terminal very 
small ovoid catkins. Sterile catkins with scales imbricated, filaments scale-like bear- 
ing each 4 anther-cells. Fertile catkins consisting of a few carpellary scales without 
bracts, and bearing each two erect ovules with orifices turned upward, becoming in 
Fruit a small dry cone, as described above, opening at maturity; seeds winged; coty- 
ledons two. 

(Thuja is from Greek, SVGO, to burn perfumes in allusion to the fragrance of the 
smoke.) 



10 



* U. 8. Dispensatory, 15th ed., p. 844. 



74 HOUGH'S AMERICAN WOODS. 

24. THUJA OCCIDENTALS, L 

ARBOR- VIT^E, WHITE CEDAR. 

Ger., Amerikanische Lebendbaum; Fr., Thuja d' Occident; Sp., Tnya 

Occidental. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS: Leaves in four rows, appressed as described for the genus 
and flattened horizontally, all on the same branchlet lying in approximately the 
same plane and making a spreading, fan-like spray. Cones scarcely in. (1.27 cm. ) in 
length, oblong, with loose, truncate scales, and of a light-brown or brownish-yellow 
color; seeds winged all round 

(The specific name, occidentals, is the Latin for western,, meaning here of the 
Western Hemisphere.) 

A tree not often over 60 ft. (18 m.) in height with a thick trunk, some- 
times 4 ft. (1.22 in.) in diameter at base, rapidly diminishing in size 
upwards, and frequently somewhat curved at the base. The heart-wood 
is of light-brown color, often with a slightly reddish tint; sap-wood, 
which is very thin, lighter. 

HABITAT. Northern United States and northward to British America, 
southward little, if any, beyond the latitude of central Pennsylvania, 
excepting along the mountains. It is found in swamps and along river 
banks and lake shores, where the soil is considerably moist. A very 
abundant tree in many sections. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood very light, soft and close-grained, 
compact, not strong, easily split and durable. It possesses a rather pleas- 
ant and characteristic odor. Specific Gravity, 0.3164; Percentage of 
Ash, 0.37; Relative Approximate Fuel Value, 0.3152; Coefficient of Elas- 
ticity, 53311; Modulus of Rupture, 512; Resistance to Longitudinal 
Pressure, 306; Resistance to Indentation, 60; Weight of a Cubic Foot 
in Pounds, 19.72. 

USES. The principal use of this timber is for fence-posts and tele- 
graph-poles, for which it is excellent and very extensively used. It is 
among the best of our timbers on account of its lightness, as well as 
other good qualities, for the siding of skiffs, canoes etc., which must be 
light in order to be easily carried over portages. We have seen one 
made of this wood, and weighing only 10^ Ibs., yet large enough to 
carry one man and baggage over quiet waters, probably the lightest 
wooden craft ever used in navigation. Such is the lightness, durability 
and strength of this timber. White Cedar is largely used for shingles, 
and to some extent for pails, buckets etc. 

As an ornamental tree, particularly for hedges, it is very useful. For 
the latter use it is often employed, and, when rightly attended to, is 
scarcely surpassed in compactness and neatness. 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. A decoction or tincture of the leaves of this 
tree is sometimes used in intermittent -fevers, coughs, scurvy, rheu- 



25. JUNIPEKUS VlRGINIANA RED CEDAR. 75 

matism etc. Made into an ointment, with lard or other animal fat, it 
is sometimes successfully used as an external application in rheumatism 
and other local complaints. A volatile oil, extracted from the leaves, is 
sometimes successfully used its a remedy for worms.* 

GENUS JUNIPERUS, L. 

Leaves evergreen, opposite or in, whorls of three, rigid and of two forms, one awl- 
shaped and the other scale-like, often both found on the same bush or tree. Flowers 
dioecious, rarely monoecious, in very small catkins. Sterile catkins ovate, with shield- 
shaped scales, each bearing at its base 3-7 anther-cells. Fertile catkins ovoid or 
globose, with few (3-5) fleshy, concave, united scales, each bearing one ovule, and 
these together becoming in Fruit a sort of berry, but in reality an altered cone, 
scaly-bracted underneath, blackish or bluish in color, and furnished with a lighter- 
colored bloom, and containing from 1-8 bony, wingless seeds; cotyledons, two. 

(Juniperus is the classical Latin name of the Juniper.) 



' 25. JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA, L. 

RED CEDAR, SAVIN, PENCIL CEDAR. 
Ger., Virginischer Wacliolder; Fr., Genevrier; Sp., Sabina. 

Leaves mostly opposite, small, connate- decurrent (not articulated) on flie stem in 
four ranks, and of two forms, one acutish, scale-like, imbricated and closely 
appressed, making a flat, two-edged branchlet, the other awl-shaped, sharp-pointed, 
nearly in. (1.27 cm.) in length, loose and spreading. Fruit a small berry a little 
larger than a pepper-corn, dark blue, covered with a whitish powder, erect on the 
branchlet. 

(Virginiana, Lat. for Virginian, but applied to the species when "Virginia" 
meant much more territory than at present.) 

A tree sometimes 80 ft. (24 m.) in height and 3 ft. (0.91 m.) or more in 
thickness of base, but usually much smaller. It is ordinarily of a short 
pyramidal form with branches springing from near the ground and 
reaching far out horizontally, but in some localities, noticeably along the 
banks of the Hudson river for example, it assumes a very slender, trim 
pyramidal form, or almost lanceolate in outline, with rounded base and 
smooth straight trunk several feet in length before branching. The 
foliage is of a dark-green color, and the bark on old trunks has usually 
a ragged appearance, the outer layer peeling off vertically in light 
ribbon-like strips and swinging loosely in the wind. 

HABITAT. Of very extensive geographical distribution, being found 
from Canada southward to the peninsula of Florida, and westward to 
the Rocky Mountains, although unknown in many localities within these 
limits, probably owing to unfavorable conditions of soil or atmosphere. 
In the north of its range it is found growing along rocky limestone 
ridges, but in the south often in swamps. 

*U. S. Dispensatory, 15th ed., p. 1432. 



76 HOUGH'S AMERICAN WOODS. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact, 
not strong, easily worked and one of the most durable of our timbers in 
contact with the soil, strongly and pleasantly odorous, of a dull-red color 
inclining somewhat to purple and fading on exposure to a purplish- 
brown; sap-wood thin and whitish. Specific Gravity, 0.4926; Per- 
centage of Ash) 0.13; Relative Approximate Fuel Value, 0.492; Coef- 
ficient of Elasticity, 66992; Modulus of Rupture, 740; Resistance to Longi- 
tudinal Pressure, 416; Resistance to Indentation, 148; Weight of a Cubic 
Foot in Pounds, 30.70. 

USES. This is the timber from which lead-pencil cases are almost 
exclusively made. Its great durability in contact with the soil ranks it 
as -probably the best of our timbers for fence posts, railway ties, sills, 
etc., when large enough. It is used to some extent in interior finish, 
and for caskets and cabinet work. For bureau drawers and the like it 
is particularly suited, owing to the fact that its odor tends to keep away 
moths. 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. The tops, i. e. the leaves and twigs, of this 
tree possess stimulant, anthelmintic and other properties. Made into 
a cerate and applied externally it acts as a valuable irritant. It is some- 
times substituted for the European Savine, but is less effectual in its 
action. The berries possess diuretic properties.* 

*U. &. Dispensatory, 15th ed., pp. 392 and 1253-4. 



INDEX. 



(For Index to the Structural Botany Treated in the Introduction, see p. 2fi.) 



No. Page. 

Abedul amarillo 17 64 

Abeto balsamico ... 22 71 

Canadense 21 70 

negro 20 69 

Abies lalsamea 22 71 

Ganadensis 21 70 

nigra 20 69 

Acer saccharinum 7 48 

Aesculus Hippocastanum 6. 47 

Ailante glanduleux 4 44 

Ailanthus 4 44 

Ailanthus glandulosus 4 44 

Alamo de diente grande 18 66 

Almez Americano 12 57 

ANACARDIACE^E 45 

Angelica-Tree 8 52 

ANGIOSPERM^E 38 

Aralia espineuse 8 52 

Aralia espinosa 8 52 

Aralia spinosa 8 52 

ARALIACE.E 52 

Arbor- Vites 24 74 

Arce de azucar 7 48 

Ash, White 10 54 

Aspen, Large-toothed 18 66 

Balm-of -Gilead Fir 22 71 

Balsam Fir 22 71 

Balsam-Tanne .- 22 71 

Barniz f also de Japan 4 44 

Basswood . . . 3 42 

Beecli 16 63 

Bee Tree 3 42 

BETULACE^E 64 

Betula lutea 17 64 

Birch Family 64 

Birds-eye Maple 7b 51 

Black Gum 9 53 

Spruce 20 69 

Blister Maple 7a 50 

Bouleau jaune 17 64 

Buche, Amerikanische 16 63 

Butternut 14 60 

Button-ball Tree 13 59 

Buttonwood 13 59 

Canoe-wood 2 40 

Castano de caballo 6 47 

Cedar, Pencil 25 75 

Red 25 75 

White.. . 24 74 



No. Page. 

Celtis occidentalis 12 57 

Chene rouge 15 62 

Cheshew Family 45 

CONIFERS 67 

CORNACE^S 53 

CRYPTOGAMOUS PLANTS 37 

Cucumber Tree 1 38 

CUPULIFER^E 61 

DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS 37 

Dogwood Family 53 

Dornige Bergangelike 8 52 

Double Spruce 20 69 

Drusiger Gotterbaum 4 44 

Elm Family 55 

Slippery 11 55 

ENDOGENOUS PLANTS 38 

Epinette noire 20 69 

Erable a sucre 7 48 

Esclie, Amerikanische. 10 54 

Espe, Groszgezante 18 66 

EXOGENOUS PLANTS 37 

Fagus ferruginea . . . , 16 63 

False Elm 12 57 

Fichte, Harzige 19 68 

Fraxinus Americana 10 54 

Frene Ainericam 10 54 

Fresno Americano 10 54 

Gelbe Birke 17 64 

Genevrier 25 75 

Ginseng Family ....... 52 

Glossary and Index to Structural 

Botany 26 

Gommier multifiore 9 53 

Groszgezante Espe 18 66 

Gum-Tree 9 53 

GYMNOSPERM^E 67 

Hackberry 12 57 

Hackmatack 23 72 

Hard Maple 7 48 

Harzige Fichte 19 68 

Haya Americana 16 63 

Hemlock 21 70 

Hercules' Club 8 52 

Hetre d' Amerique 16 63 

Hirschkolben Sumach 5 45 



78 



ItfDEX. 



No. Page. 
Horse Chestnut 6 47 

JUGLANDACE.E 60 

Juglans cinerea 14 60 

Juniper us Virginiana 25 75 



Key, Based upon Flowers. 
Fruit . , . 
Leaves . , 



Landscape Maple 7a 51 

Langgespitzte Magnolia 1 1 38 

Larch 23 72 

Larche, Anierikanische 23 72 

Large-toothed Poplar 18 66 

Larice Americana 23 72 

Larix Americana 23 72 

Lebendbaum, Amerikanische ... 24 74 

Lime-Tree 3 42 

Lin or Linden, American 3 42 

Linde, Amerikanische 3 42 

Liriodendron Titlipifera 2 40 

Magnolia acuminata 1 38 

Magnolia acuminada 1 38 

a feuilles pointes 1 38 

Magnolia Family 38 

MAGNOLTACE^E 38 

Maple, Sugar 7 48 

Marronier d' Inde 6 47 

Meleze Americain 23 72 

Micocoulier occidental 12 57 

MONOCOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS 38 

Moose Elm 11 55 

Mountain Magnolia 1 38 

Nettle-Tree.. . 12 57 

Nogalgris 14 60 

Norway Pine 19 68 

Noyer cendre 14 60 

Nyssa multiflora 9 53 

Oak Family 61 

Red 15 62 

Oil-Nut 14 60 

OLEACE.E 54 

Olive Family 54 

Olmo Colorado 11 55 

Orme gras 11 55 

Pencil Cedar 25 75 

Pepperidge 9 53 

Peruche 21 70 

Peuplier a grandes dents 18 66 

PH^ENOGAMOUS PLANTS 37 

PinMaple 7b 51 

Pin rouge 19 68 

Pine Family 67 

Red or " Norway " 19 68 

Pino rizado 19 68 

Pinus resinosa 19 68 

Poplar, Large-toothed 18 66 



No. Page. 

Populus grandidentata 18 66 

Plane-Tree 13 59 

Plane- Tree Family 58 

PLATANACE^E 53 

Platane Americaiu 13 59 

Platane, Amerikanische . . 13 59 

Platano de America 13 59 

Platanus occidentals 13 59 

Quercus rubra 15 62 

Red Cedar.- 25 75 

Elm 11 55 

Oak 15 62 

Pine 19 68 

Spruce 20 69 

Ehus typhina 5 45 

Roble rojo 15 62 

Rock Maple 7 48 

Roszkastanie 6 47 

Rothe "Eiche 15 62 

Ulme 11 55 

Sabina 25 75 

SALICACE^E 65 

Sapin baumier 22 71 

SAPINDACE,E 46 

Sauer Gummibaum 9 53 

Savin 25 75 

Schierling-Tanne 21 70 

Schwartztanne 20 69 

SlMARUBACE^E 43 

Slippery Elm 11 55 

Soapberry Family 46 

Sour Gum 9 53 

Spruce, Black, Double or Red. . . 20 69 

Stag-horn Sumach 5 45 

Sugar Maple 7 48 

Sugarberry 12 57 

Sugar-Tree 7 48 

Sumac .... 5 45 

Sumach 5 45 

Sycamore 13 59 

Tamarack 23 72 

Tilia Americana 3 42 

Toothache-Tree 8 52 

Thuja d' Occident 24 74 

Thuja occidentalis 24 74 

TILIACE/E 42 

Tilio Americano. 3 42 

Tilleul d' Amerique 3 42 

Tree-of-IIeaveu 4 44 

Tulip-Tree 2 40 

Tulpenbaum 2 40 

Tulipier 2 40 

Tulipifero 2 40 

Tupelo 9 53 

Tuya Occidental 24 74 

ULMACE^E 55 

Ulmus fulva 11 55 



INDEX. 



79 



No. Page. 

Wacholder, Virginischer 25 75 

Wallnussbaum, Aschgrauer 14 60 



Walnut Family 

White Ash . . 10 



Cedar , 24 74 

Poplar 2 40 

Walnut 14 60 

White-wood 2 40 

White-wood 18 65 



No. Page. 

Willow Family 65 

Yellow Gum 9 53 

Poplar 2 40 

Zurgelbaum, Abendlandischer . . 12 57 

Zuker Ahorn 7 48 

Zumaque 5 45 



1. MAGNOLIA ACUMSNATA, L 

Cucumber-Tree, Mountain Magnolia, 




TRANSVERSE SECTION. 



SECTION. 



TAMCBMTIAi. SECTION. 



ff. Langgespitzte Magnolia, f> Magno 
tJ'JiMagnolia a feuilles pointes, 



Manolia acuminada 



f MiUJUifcl) AND 



Horon, B. A., LOWTII.L*. N. Y., U 8. A. 



1. MAGNOLIA ACUMiNATA, I 

Cucumber-Tree, Mountain Magnolia, 



TRANSVERSE SECTION. 



SECTION. 



TANGBMTIAL SECTION. 



Langgespitzte Magnolia, *>}-' Magnolia acuminada 
tlliMagnolia a feuilles pointes, 

f t'BMHt AM< SXCTtONB MADS BT KoKKTN B. HotTOn, T>. A., Ix>WTtLli. N. Y., U 8. A. 



LIRIODENDRON TULIPIFERA, L. 

Tulip-Tree, White-Wood, White or Yellcw "Poplar," 

anoe-Wood. 



HBBE 




TRANSVERSE SECTION. 



RADIAL SECTION. 



TANGENTIAL SECTION. 



Tulpenbaum. 



Tulipier. f , Tolipifero. 



HOUGH, K A., I.OWTII.L*, N. T., U. S. A. 



2. LIRIODENDRON TULIPIFERA, L 

Tulip-Tree, White-Wood, White or Yellow " Poplar," 

oe-Wood, 




TRANSVERSE SECTION. 



RADIAL SECTION. 






TANGENTIAL. SECTION, 



Tulpenbaum, 



F. HOUGH, B. A., I.OWTUL.LE, N. Y., U 



3 V TILIA AMERICANA, L. 
Basswood, American Linden or Lin, Lime-Tree, Bee-Tree, 



TRANSVERSE SECTION. 



RADIAL SECTION. 



TAMOCNTRAfc. SECTION. 



; ffi Amerikanisclie Linda* 

,"SL .- v 



Tilio AmericanOt 



FoBUsirao AMI Sacnorn sum T Bvwnm B. Bov, B. A., Lowviua, K . Y. ^. ft, A. 



3. TILIA AMERICANA, L 

Basswoodj American Linden or Lin, Lime-Tre, Bee-Tree, 



TRANSVERSE SECTION. 



RADIAL SECTION. 



CTIOM. 



Amerikanische Linde 



Sfo Tilluei d f Amerique, 

menom MAM T EHrx B. Moves, B. A,, JUwnuia. K. Y n . I. A. 



4. AILANTHUS GLANDULOSUS, DESF, 
Ailanthus, Tree-of-Heayen. 



TRAM6VEKSI SECTION. 



- . _.- , 



-- : - 






RADIAL SECTION. 




" 



T ANOINT! At SECTION. 



Driisiger Gbkterbaum, 



Barniz falso de Japan. 



Aylante glandnleux.- 



PUBLISHBD AND SlCXIONS MABK BI EoMEYN B. HOUGH, B. A,, LoWVILLB, Iff. Y., U. S. A 



4. AILANTHUS GLANDULOSUS, DESF 

Ailanthus, Tree-of-Heaven* 



TRANSVERSE SECTION. 




RADIAL SECTION. 









TANGENTIAL SECTION. 









Drosrer Gbiterbaum, 



um, p* Barniz falso dc Japan, 

Aylante glauduleux. 



B. A., LOWVIIXB, N. Y^ U. S. A. 



5. RHUS TYPHINA, L. 

Sumach, Stag-horn Sumach, Virginian Sumach 



TRANSVERSE SCCTIfti*. 





Hirschkolben Sum&cL 



Zumaqw. 



5. RHUS TYPHINA, L. 

Sumach, Stag-horn Sumach, Virginian Sumacls 



. 



TRANSVERSE SECTION. 






RADIAL S20TI9*, 










fill, Hirschkolben Sornaeh. fc Smnac. p Zumaque. 



6. AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM, L 
Horse Chestnut. 






TRANSVERSE SECTION, 



RADIAL SECTION. 



TANGENTIAL SECTION. 



Roszkastanie, 



Castano de caballo, 



Marronier d'Inde. 



PUBLISHED AMD SECTIONS MADE BT KOWKYK B. HOI;H. B A.. IOWVILLB. N Y^ U S. A. 



6. AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM, L 

Horse Chestnut, 



TRANSVERSE SECTION. 



RADIAL SECTION, 



TANGENTIAL SECTION, 



Eoszkastanie. 



Castano de caballo, 



Marronier d'Inde. 



PUBLISHED AMD SECTIONS MAI> 



OUGH, B. A., 1 OWVILLB, N Y n U. S. A. 



7. ACER SACCHARINUM, WANG. 
Sugar Maple, Hard Maple, Bock Maple, Sugar-Tree 



TRAIMVCBtl SBTft*. 




Zucker Ahorn. 9i, EieHe a Svcie, f , Arc* de azucsr, 



7> ACER SACCHARJNUy, WANG 
Sugar Maple, Hard Maple, Bock Maple, Sugg, 



TRAMSVER8I SECTION, 




RADIAL EOTIOM. 



ftCTt*M, 



Zucker Aliorn. SFl* Erablea Sucre, ), Arce de aiuca 



FVMJMHCD AND SXCTIOIWS XA8 JB2 K 



7 a . ACER SACCHARINUM, WANG. 
Sugar Maple-Blister Figure, Blister Maple, Landscape Maple. 






Bla'scien Ahorr. 



FVBUMUD AM SBCVIOX* 



Arce con ampollas, 



Erable p i 



ik, A,. Lomriwa. Jl. T IT. f. A* 



7. ACER SACCHAR1NUM, WANG. 
Sugar Maple-Blister Figure, Blister Maple, Landscape Maple 






YRAMCVSASfl 




Bla^cien Ahorr, 



Aroe con tmpollas, 



f l. Brablo 



7*. ACER SACCHARINUM, WAN& 
Sugar Maple-Birds-eye Figure, Birds-eye Maple, KB Maple, 






TRANSVERSE SECTION. 




RAPIAL TI0N. 




TANfrtNTIM. 



Augen Ahorn, 




*>. Arce ojo de paxaro. 



Erable oeil d'oiseau. 



PtrXUSUO) AK SECTION* 4 BT 1,'OMETX IT Hot'**, U. ^., LOWT U4I, H. T , U 8- A 



7*>. ACER SACCHARINUM, WANG* 
Sugar Maple-~Birds-eye Figure, Birds-eye Maple, Pin Maple, 



TRANSVERSE SECTION. 







RADIAL SCCTt*<M. 



Augen Ahorn, 



rce qjo d paro, 



Erable oeil 



8. ARAUA SPINOSA, L. 

Hercules' Club, Angelica-Tree, Toothache-Tree, 



TRANSVERSE SECTION* 



RADIAU SECTION. 



A*O : TIAL SICtlON. 



** Dornige Bergangelike. 



Aralia espinosa, 



tlf. Aralia es 



nco AK SxcnoNs MAIXC BT Rot B. HOPH, R A., LOWVIIXB, N. T. U. S. A. 



8. ARALIA SPINOSA, L, 

Hercules' Club, Angelica-tree, Toothache-Tree, 



TRANSVERSE SECTION. 







RADIAU SECTION. 




A .0 v T IAL SI CT JON. 



8f It Dornige Ber^angelike. {)* Aralia espinosa, 

tli. Aralia espinerae. 



PUBLISHED AB SECTIONS MADE BT ROMETN B. HOCCH, B. A. 



9. NYSSA MULTIFLORAi WANG. 

fapelo, Pepperidge, Bl(Msk or Yellow Gum, Soitr 3m. 






TAMOCKTIAL 



Saner Gummibaum e 



Gommier nmltiflore* 



ItoaucTK B. Hov, B. A., 



a NYSSA MULTIFLORA, WANG, 
Tupelo, Pepperidge, Black or Yellow Gum, Sour Gum. 




MAftAAL *TtQtt. 



TAMOCNTIAL 



f-i Sauer Gummibaum. 

S?f i Gommier multiflore. 



10, FRAXINUS AMERICANA, L 



White Ash. 



TRANSVERSE SECTION. 






RADIAL SKCTIO*. 




TANC*T|AL SECTION. 



fli Amerikamsche Esche. 



he, r>p* Fresno 

Frene Americairi. 



ia FRAXINUS AMERICANA, L. 

White Ash, 



CCYIOM. 








rAMCTIAL 



Amtrikaniache Esche. 



Fresno Americano, 



America in 



s} AK SKenom u BY ROXVTK B. Hov. B. A. 



11. U.LMUS FULVA, MICH. 
Slippwy Elm, MioseEla. 



TRAMS vfcMSfi 



/ 

SHPiiiiilT^ 




RADIAL SCTI9M. 




TAIMMNTIM. 



Eothe Ulme. 



Olmo Colorado, 



Onne gras, 



F*LMWK ANX> SBOTIOfHS KAX>1 BT ROXVTH B. HOCOH, B. A., LcwtDUA, V*-T M U. 8. A, 



11. ULMUS FULVA, MICH. 
Slipptry Elm, Red Elm, Mose El] 



^m. ~F 



: - 

- : 



- 



Rotlie Ulme. 






Orrne gras. 



rauWtt AHB Sxanoaro KADI BT BOX*TH B. HOOCH, B. A., 



12. CELTIS OCCIDENTALS L 



Siigarberry, Hackberry, 



THAN* VERSE SECTION, 






"* i **#,.: >>. , . ,. 




TAMOSNTIM. SEOTMMI. 



Abendlandischer Ziirgellanm. Sf). Almez Aatericano, 
3H, Micoconlier oeoidental 



*Ni BT ROMBTM B. HOCTM, B. A., Letrrijm,K. ., U. S 



12, CELTIS OCCIDENTAL-IS, L 

S "igor-berry, Hackberry, Nettie-Tret, False Elm, 



TRANSVERSE SECTION, 




SECTMMI 



fid, Abendlafldiscber Ztirgeltamc. f). Almez Aericaao, 
H Mieocoulier occidental 



xasn, ButtiBWiM, lttttte 









Tktud le 



. .- 






BattmwMd, B&tltt4ill, Fliuu^bm 






14. JUGLANS CINEREA, L. 

Butternut. White-Walnut, Oil-Nut. 



TRANSVERSE MOTION. 






RADIAL SECTION. 



TANGENTIAL SECTION. 



Aschgrauer Wallmiszbauin. , o>f>i Nogal gris, 
Noyer cendr 6. 



PUBLISHED AD SBCTI^KS MAMS BT ROMKYN B HOUGH, B. A., LOWVU.LB, N. T., U. S. A. 



14, JUGLANS CINEREA, L. 



Butternut, 



White-Walnut, 



Oil-Nut, 



TRANSVERSE SECTION. 




RADIAL SECTION. 



TANGENTIAL 



Aschgrauer WaUnuszbaum, 
Sfii Noyer cendr6, 



Nogal gris, 



PUBLISHED XMD SKCTIOKS XADB BT ROMBYN B. HOUGH, B. A., LCWVILLK, N. Y., U. S. A. 



15, QUERCUS RUBRA, L 
Bed Oak, 



TftAMSVERtfg ttSCTION. 



RADIAL CfiOTiOM. 



= ~ 



TANQCNTIAL lOTIOM. 



ofl* Both Eiche. 



Ch6ne rou^e, 



Roble rojo. 



HOUSH, B. A., Tonnru 



15. QUERCUS RUBRA, L 




TftAVBKC 



RADIAL OTIOMo 









8fl-.Eoth Eiche. 



ChSne wasp, 



16, FAGUS FERRUGINEA, AIT, 

American Beech. 



TRANSVERSE SECTION. 




RADIAL SECTION. 



TANGENTIAL SECTION. 



Amerikanische Buches Sj), Haya Americana. 
fo E6tre d'Amerique. 



PUBUttUD AMD 8KCOTOK8 XADB BT BOMTM B, HOTOH, B. A. LOWIIXE, N. Y., U. 8. A. 



16. FAGUS FERRUGINEA, AIT. 

American Beech. 




TRANSVERSE MOTION, 



RADIAL SECTION. 



TANGENTIAL MOTION. 



W, Amerikanische Bnchei j)i Haya Americana, 
Shfe H^tre d'Amerique, 

PUBUSBBD ABJD SacmoHB JUUDB BT BowtTK B. HOUGH, B. A., Lowvu&B, N. T M U. 8. A. 



17. BETULA LUTEA, MICHX. F. 

Yellow Birch, Gray Bircla, 



TRAN8VER8E SECTION. 



RADIAL SECTION. 



TANGENTIAL SECTION, 



Gelbe Birke, Bouleaujanne. )< Abedul ainarillo, 



PUBXIBHEB AJRD SBOTION8 MADK BT BOMKTK B. HoOOH, B. A., LOWVUJLB, N. Y., U 



17. BETULA LUTEA, MICHX. F. 

Yellow Birch, Gray Birch, 



TRANSVERSE SECTION, 



RADIAL SECTION. 



TANGENTIAL, SECTION. 



Gelbe Birke. Sfo Bouleau jaune. >j>< Abedul amarillo, 



PUBUSHBD AMD SECTIONS XAD8 BT ROMKTK B. HO0QH, B. A., LoWrtXJUB, N. Y., U. 3. A. 



1 8. POPULUS GRANDIDENTATA, MICHX. 

Large-toothed Poplar or Aspen, Large Poplar, White-Wood* 



\ 



V 



TRANSVERSE SECTION. 



RADIAL SECTION. 



TANGENTIAL SECTION. 



Groszgez&nte Espe, Sj)< Alamo de diente grande. 
"ffltt Peuplier a grandes dents. 

PUBLIflHBD AHB JSWJTIONS MADE BT ROICBYN B. HODOH, B. A., LcwVtLMt, N. T., U. 8. A. 



18. POPULUS GRANDIDENTATA, MICHX. 

Large-toothed Poplar or Aspen, Large Poplar, White-Wood*. 



TRANSVERSE SECTION. 



RADIAL SECTION. 



TANGENTIAL SECTION. 



Groszgezante Espe, 



Alamo de diente grande. 



Peuplier a grandes dents, 



PUBUSKKD AND .SECTIONS MADS BT ROKXTH B. HODOH. B. A., LCWVILLB, N. T., U. 8. A. 



19. PINUS RESINOSA, AIT. 

"Norway" Pine, 



Bed Pine, 



^^i 






TRANSVERSE SECTION. 



RADIAL SECTION. 



TANQENTIAL SECTION. 



Harzige Fichte. fl Pin rouge, |)i Pino rizado 



PUBUSBED AD SECTIONS XADB BT ROXXTN B. HOUOH, 



19. PINUS RESINOSA, AIT. 

Red Pine, "Norway" Pine. 



TRANSVERSE SECTION, 



RADIAL SECTION. 



TANOfiMTIAL SECTION. 



Earzige Fichte, Pin rouge. j)i Pino rizado. 



AMD SBCTIOKB XAOB BY ROXBYX B. HOUGH, B. A., LOWYIUA, N. T M U. 8. A. 



20. ABIES NIQR A, 'Pom- 
Black Spruce, Double Spruce, Bed Spruce, 



TRANSVERSE SECTION. 



RADIAL SECTION. 




TANGENTIAL SECTION. 



Schwartztanne, SH, Epinette noire. o>j>i Abeto negro, 



PUBLISHED AD SKCTIOHS MADB BT ROMBTV B. Hoaon, B. A., LCWVUJUB, N. Y., U. S. 



20. ABIES NIGRA/PoiR. 

Black Spruce, Double Spruce, Bed Spruce, 



TRANSVERSE SECTION. 



RADIAL SECTION. 



TANGENTIAL SECTION. 



Schwartztanne, H, Epinette noire, >j)i Abeto negro, 



AMD SBOTIOXS XADK BT Roiurx B. Hoaoa, B. A., LCWIIXB, N. Y., U. 8. A. 



21. ABIES CAN ADENSIS, MICHX. 

Hemlock, Hemlock Fir, 



TRANSVERSE SECTION. 



RADIAL SECTION. 



TANGENTIAL SECTION. 



W< ScMerling-Tanne, !fifa Peruche, Sj), Abeto Oanadense, 



PUBUSHKD AMD SBOTIONS MADB BT llOMKTN B. HOOOH, B. A., LCWVUUUB, N. T., U. 8. A. 



21. ABIES CANADENSIS, MICHX. 

Hemlock, Hemlock Fir, 



TRANSVERSE SECTION. 



RADIAL SECTION. 



TANGENTIAL SECTION. 



ScMerling-Tanne, $4* Peruche. f), Abeto Canadense, 



PUBLISHED AMD SBCTIONS KADB BT ROMBTN B. HOUOH, B. A., LCWVUOJS, N. Y., U. 3. A. 



22. ABIES BALSAMEA, MARSHALL. 

Balsam, Balsam Fir. Balm-of-Gilead Fir, 




TRANSVERSE SECTION. 



RADIAL SECTION. 



TANGENTIAL SECTION. 



Balsam-Tanne, 



Abeto balsamico. 



Sapin baumier. 



POBUSHBD ADD SW3TIOKS KADIS BT ROMBrN B. HOTOH, B. A., LoWVttLB, N. T., U. 8. A. 



22. ABIES BALSAM EA, MARSHALL. 

Balsam, Balsam Fir. Balm-of-Gilead Fir, 



TRANSVERSE SECTION, 



RADIAL SECTION. 



TANGENTIAL SECTION. 



Balsam-Tanne. Sf), Abeto balsamico, 
2fo Sapin baumier, 



PUBLISHED AND Sxcnoxs XADK BY BOMBTH B. HODOH, B. A., Lowviuut, N. T., U. 



: AMERICANA, MiCHX. 

Tamarack, American or Black Larch, Hackmatack 



m m 



TRANSVERSE SECTION. 



RADIAL SECTION. 






TANGENTIAL SECTION. 



Amerikanische Larche, f , Larice Americana. 
J^i Meleze Amerieain, 



PUBLI8HB-iSD SK3TIOK8 MADK BT ROMBTK B. HOUaK, B. A., LCWVIUJB, N. Y M U. S. A. 



23. LARIX AMERICANA, MICHX. 

Tamarack, American or Black Larch, Hackmatack, 




TRANSVERSE SECTION. 






RADIAL SECTION. 







TANGENTIAL SECTION. 



Amerikanische Larche* Sj), Larice Americana. 



Meleze Americain, 



PUBLISHED -iSD SECTIONS MAPB BY BOMTH B. HO0K, B. A., LcWVIUJB, N. T M U, S. A. 



24. THUJA OCCIDENTALIS, L. 

Arbor-Vitae, White Cedar, 




TRANSVERSE SECTION. 



RADIAL SECTION. 



TANGENTIAL. 



Amerikanisohe Lebendbaum. j), Tuya Occidental, 
Sk Thuja d'Occident. 

PUBUCHBD AMB SBCSTIOKS MADK BT KOMKTN B. HOTOH, B. A., LOWVILU, N. T., U. 8. A. 



24. THUJA OCCIDENTALIS, L 

Arbor- Vitae, White Cedar. 



TRANSVERSE SECTION. 







RADIAL SECTION. 



TANGENTIAL SECTION. 



Amerikanische Lebendbaum. 



Thuja d'Occident 



Tuya Occidental, 



PUBLUBBD AND SXCTIOMB MAD* BY ROMKTH B. HOUOH, B. A., LoWVIIXK, N. T M U. 8. A, 



25. JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA, L. 



Bed Cedar, Savin, 



Pencil Ceder, 



TRANSVERSE SECTION, 




RADIAL SECTION. 



TANGENTIAL SECTION. 



of^Yirginisctier Waohftolder. $4* Genevrier. S>< SaMna 



PUBUttUSD ASD SKCWOH8 XADB BT ROMBTM B. HOWH, B. A., LcWVttUB, N. Y M U. 



25. JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA, L. 

Bed Cedar. Savin, Pencil Ceder. 




TRANSVERSE SECTION, 



RADIAL SECTION. 



TANGENTIAL SECTION. 



WiYirginischer Wachholder. 9^, Genevrier, f>, Sabina 



PuBi.iam> AMD SECTIONS KAI>K BT ROXVTK B. Hoaoa, B. A., LCWVILUB, N. Y., IT. S. A. 



JO 

in 



LOCBLEP 
CASE 




Iw 



V, f 

Bi'o), Kb, 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 



PLATES l-7a,7,7b-25 

Please collate before charging 
and before discharging. 

















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